Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Fractions of Plant Parts of Pterocarpus santalinoides

Main Article Content

S. C. Emencheta
I. B. Enweani
A. N. Oli
U. M. Okezie
A. A. Attama

Abstract

Aims: The study aims to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the leaves, seeds, bark, and root of Pterocarpus santalinoides plant.

Study Design: Agar well diffusion and Agar well dilution methods were used to test the preliminary antimicrobial and minimum inhibitory/bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations respectively of Pterocarpus santalinoides plants.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Agulu Campus, Nigeria, between February – October, 2017.

Methodology: Primary extraction and fractionation of the plant parts were undertaken with methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane. Agar diffusion method for the primary antimicrobial screening on Muller-Hinton agar (bacteria) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (fungi) were used to assess the antimicrobial activities of the sixteen (16) samples on some microbial isolates namely Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Microsporon canis, and Trichophyton rubrum. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) and percentage inhibition diameter growth (PIDG) of the samples that yielded positive activity were also evaluated.

Results: Twelve (12) samples exhibited inhibitory activity on at least one or more of the test isolates. The MIC range observed for the extracts and fractions that yielded positive activity was 12.5 – 100 mg/ml. The n-hexane fraction of the plant root indicated the best value of 12.5 mg/ml against M. canis. The best MBC/MFC value of 25 mg/ml was observed with the ethyl acetate fraction of the bark (against E. coli and M. canis) and the n-hexane fraction of the root (against M. canis). The result showed S. typhi to be the most sensitive organism to the metabolites of P. santalinoides. Extended-spectrum activity was observed with the ethyl acetate fraction of the bark against three (3) of the test isolates namely S. typhi, E. coli and M. canis. The determination of PIDG values for the test organisms against the plants’ extracts/fractions showed that crude methanol extract (28.57%) and ethyl-acetate fraction (0.14%) of the leaves, butanol fraction (0.14%) of the root (all against S. typhi) were the most potent test samples.

Conclusion: The results indicated that the plant parts may have potential medicinal values and confirmed its use in traditional medicine.

Keywords:
Pterocarpus santalinoides, antimicrobial, methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol

Article Details

How to Cite
Emencheta, S. C., Enweani, I. B., Oli, A. N., Okezie, U. M., & Attama, A. A. (2019). Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Fractions of Plant Parts of Pterocarpus santalinoides. Biotechnology Journal International, 23(3), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2019/v23i330081
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ujam NT, Oli AN, Ikegbunam MN, Adikwu MU, Esimone CO. Antimicrobial resistance evaluation of oragnisms isolated from liquid herbal products manufactured and marketed in South Eastern Nigeria. 2013; 3(4):548-562.

Rios JL, Recio MC. Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity. J of Ethnopharma. 2005;100:80-84. PubMed Abstract.

Azaizeh H, Fulder S, Said O, Khalil K. Ethnobotanical knowledge of local Arab practitioners in the Middle Eastern Region. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(1-2):98–108.

Saadabi MAA. An evaluation of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Sudanese Henna) leaves extracts as antimicrobial agent. Research J of Bio Sci. 2007;2(4):419–423.

Omer MEFA, Elnima EI. Antimicrobial activity of Imenia americana. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:122-126.

Okoye EL, Uba BO, Uhobo PC, Ikegbunam MN. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of methanol and chloroform extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves. J of Sci Res & Reports. 2014;3(1): 255-262.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simmons A. Agroforestry database: A tree reference and selection guide version 4.0; 2009.
Available:http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp

Anowi C, Okonkwo C, Agbata C, Ezeokafor E. Preliminary phytochemical screening, evaluation of acute toxicity and antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of Pterocarpus santalinoides (Fabaceae). Int. J of Pharma & Phytopharma. Res. 2012;1(6):343-346.

Okwu D, Ekeke B. Phytochemical screening and the medical composition of chewing sticks in south eastern Nigeria. Global J of Pure & Applied Sci. 2003;9(1): 235-238.

Nwokorie C, Nwachukwu N, Ezeanokete C, Ike C. The phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis of Pterocarpus santalinoides plants. Asian J of Sci & Tech. 2015;6(5):1411–1418.

Igoli J. Traditional medicine practice amongst the Idege people of Nigeria, part 11. Int J of Biotech & Allied Sci. 2005;4(4): 408–412.

Ogbe A, Affiku J. Proximate study, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Moringa oleifera leaves harvested from Lafia, Nigeria, potential benefit in poultry nutrition and health. J of Microbiol Biotech & Food Sci. 2006;1:296-308.

Ijeh I, Omodamiro O, Nwana I. Antimicrobial effects of aqueous and ethanolic fractions of two species, Ocimum gratissimim and Xylopia aethiopica. Afr J of Biotech. 2005;4(9):53–956.

Aida P, Rosa V, Blamea F, Tomas A, Salvador C. Paraguyan plants used in traditional medicine. J of Ethnopharma. 2001;16:93-98.

Jayshree D, Dhruva J. Antidermatophytic activity of some medicinal plants, phytochemical analysis and isolation of active fractions from Piper Longum. J of Pure & App Microbiol. 2013;7(4):3207–3312.

Okore V. A standard laboratory technique in pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical microbiology (2nd edition). Naphtali prints, Nigeria. 2004;6–24.

Ezema B, Ezeofor C, Eze F. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of the methanol extract and less polar solvent fractions of Pterocarpus santalinoides leaves. Int J of Pharm Tech Res. 2016;9(5):353-359.

Odeh I, Tor-Anyiin T. Phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluation of leaves-extracts of Pterocarpus santalinoides. Euro. J of Med. Plants. 2014;4(1):105-115.

Eze S, Cornelius C, Okereke H. Phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis of the stem bark of Pterocarpus santalinoides, (Nturu Ukpa). Asian J of Nat & App Sci. 2012;1(3):26-32.

Nwokorie C, Nwachukwu N, Ezeanokete C, Ike C. The phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis of Pterocarpus santalinoides plants. Asian J of Sci & Tech. 2015;6(5):1411–1418.

Osuagwu G, Akomas C. Antimicrobial activity of the leaves of the species of Nigerian Pterocarpus (Jacq.). Int J of Med & Aromatic Plants. 2013;3(2):178–183.

Bothon FTD, Moustapha M, SophieBogninou G, Dossa CPA, Yehouenou B, Medoatinsa SE, et al. Chemical characterization and biological activities of Newbouldia laevis and Pterocarpus Santalinoides Leaves. Bulletin of Env, Pharmaco & Life Sci. 2014;3(11): 09-15.

Ukwueze SE, Anozia RC, Ezealisiji KM. Preliminary report on the isolation and phytochemical evaluation of antimicrobial constituents from the leaves of Nturukpa - a common Nigerian herb (Pterocarpus santalinoides DC). The Pharma & Chem J. 2018;5(1): 117-122

Umeh SO, Umerie SC, Emelugo BN, Nwobi SC. Preliminary study of the antibacterial and analgesic effect of the leaf extract of Pterocarpus santalinoides L'Hér. Ex DC. Int. J of Pharm Sci Invention. 2014;2(4):17-22.