Biotechnology Journal International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Biotechnology Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7051)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biotechnology including cell biology, genetics, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology,&nbsp; immunogenetics, cell and tissue culture, molecular ecology, genetic engineering and biological engineering, bioremediation and biodegradation, bioinformatics, biotechnology regulations, pharmacogenomics, gene therapy, plant, animal, microbial and environmental biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Biotechnology Journal International 2456-7051 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles from Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Annona muricata: A Green Nanobiotechnology Approach <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The biological green synthesis of nanoparticles via nanobiotechnology processes have a significant potential to boost nanoparticles production without the use of harsh, toxic, and expensive chemicals commonly used in conventional physical and chemical processes. <em>Annona muricata</em>, a tropical plant belonging to family Annonaceae is one of the most used plants in folk medicine because of its many medicinal uses and therefore presents a strong candidate for use in green synthesis.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to optimize a method for the synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from ethanolic extracts of leaves of <em>Annona muricata</em> as well as to characterize the green synthesized AgNPs.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> AgNPs were synthesized from <em>Annona muricata </em>leaves using AgNO<sub>3</sub> solution. The AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopy and microscopy techniques.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The formed AgNPs had an absorption maximum at 429 nm using UV–Visible spectroscopy and were stable under different pH, temperature, and storage conditions. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed the different functional groups responsible for the synthesis and stabilization of the AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed a spherical nature of the synthesized AgNPs. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis showed presence of Ag, O, and Cl with Ag having the highest composition at 60%. X-Ray Diffraction and Dynamic Light Scattering revealed a crystalline nature of AgNPs with an average size of 87.36 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.16 respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis further confirmed the crystalline and spherical nature of the AgNPs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this article, an efficient, eco-friendly and low-cost method for the synthesis and recovery of stable AgNPs using <em>Annona muricata</em> leaves ethanolic extracts as both a reducing and capping agent has been reported for the first time. The synthesized AgNPs could be promising candidates for many biomedical, clinical, engineering, and polymer applications.</p> Yahaya Gavamukulya Esther N. Maina Fred Wamunyokoli Amos M. Meroka Edwin S. Madivoli Hany A. El-Shemy Gabriel Magoma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-18 2019-10-18 1 18 10.9734/bji/2019/v23i430083 Viability of Hydrocarbon-degrading Bacterial Consortium Immobilized on Different Carriers <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Viability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium immobilized on different carriers was studied.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from crude oil contaminated sites in Gio and K-Dera, Rivers State, Nigeria using enrichment method. Proximate analyses were carried out on the best carrier materials. Immobilization was by direct adsorption of the isolates onto the carrier materials and viability was determined by plate count method. The carrier materials tested included soya bran, sugarcane bagasse, corn cob, brown saw dust, white saw dust, cassava peel and red mud (bentonite).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The bacterial isolates demonstrated varied degradation capacity. The best carrier material was saw dust (103.6% survival) and corn cob (103.6% survival) followed by soya bran (94.4% survival rate) and cassava peel (94.4% survival rate). The saw dust had moisture content, 5.92%; ash content, 7.49%; crude protein, 2.2%; volatile matter, 74.28; and fixed carbon, 12.34%; whereas, the percentage chemical composition observed for soya bran were 10.11, 4.08, 5.22, 42.61, 18.37 and 8.89 for moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrate, respectively. There was significant difference (p=0.05) between viability rate observed with the different carrier materials.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study showed that the agro-wastes used in this study can effectively enhance the viability of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterial. The result is significant as it shows the possibility of using these carrier materials for bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated media.</p> Victor Ezebuiro Ipeghan Jonathan Otaraku Boma Oruwari Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasili ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-15 2019-11-15 1 9 10.9734/bji/2019/v23i430084