Bacterial and Fungal Pathogen Synergetics after Co-infection in the Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Main Article Content

Minal S. Dandve
Sopan Ganpatrao Wagh
Prachi R. Bhagat
Kiran Pawar
Sarika A. Timake
Abhijeet A. Daspute
Manoj Baliram Pohare


Wheat is one of the most important staple grains in the world and the leading source of calories, production is limited by biotic stress. There is a number of pathogen attacks on wheat crops, depending on environmental conditions. In some cases, more than one crop pathogen attack leads to higher damage or decrease susceptibility. There are very few studies in the field of multiple pathogen interactions; in this study, we analyzed the co-infectionof wheat with fungal and bacterial pathogens. Field isolated Xanthomonas translucens and Xanthomonas compestris bacteria have been used against GM-322 and PDKV varieties co-infected with Fusarium fungus spp.  In our experiment, we used Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium equitus. Compared to the combined effect of the fungus and bacteria, we measured the length and width of the infected leaf part. We have observed that there is more susceptibility to X. compestris and F. graminearium in the GM-322 wheat variety. The second susceptible cvs was PDKV when we co-infected F. oxysporum and then X. translucens fungal and bacterial infected symptom analysis showed yellow stripes on the leaf surface of the wheat crop. We observed head blight in wheat when it was infected with F. graminearum and X. compestris. As a result, we concluded that varietal susceptibility also depends on co-infection pathogen attacks and their synergetic interaction.

Wheat, pathogen interaction, Xanthomonas translucens, Xanthomonas compestris, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dandve, M. S., Wagh, S. G., Bhagat, P. R., Pawar, K., Timake, S. A., Daspute, A. A., & Pohare, M. B. (2019). Bacterial and Fungal Pathogen Synergetics after Co-infection in the Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Biotechnology Journal International, 23(4), 1-9.
Original Research Article


Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Gómez MH. Bread Wheat Improvement and Production. Rome, Italy: FAO: Plant Production and Protection Series; 2002.

Joshi AK, Mishra B, Chatrath R, Ortiz Ferrara G, Singh RP.Wheat improvement in India: Present status, emerging challenges and future prospects. Euphytica. 2007;157:431-446.

Singh DV, Gogoi R. Karnal bunt of wheat (Triticum spp.) – a global scenario. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2011;81: 3-14.

Shewry PR.Wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2009;60:1537- 1553.

Pohare MB, Suryawanshi PP, Rathod HP. In vitroMicropropagation of Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis L.) through Shoot Tip Culture. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2012a;3(4):880-882.

Pohare MB, Rathod HP, Shahakar SB, Kelatkar SK, Suryawanshi PP. Effects of UV radiations on morphological characters in In vitro regenerated Polianthestuberosa. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2012b;3:1307-1308.

Pohare MB, Batule BS, Bhor SA, Shahakar SB, Kelatkar SK, Varandani SP. Effect of gamma radiations on the morphological characters in In vitro Regenerated Polianthes tuberosa. Indian Horticulture Journal. 2013;3:95-97.
(DI: 086-13-IHJ-0206-2013-24)

Rathod HP, Pohare MB, Bhor SA, Jadhav KP, Batule BS, Shahakar SB, Wagh SG, Wadekar HB, Kelatkar SK, Kulkarni MR. In vitro micro propagation of blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea L.). Trends in Biosciences. 2014;7(19):3079-3082.

Pohare MB, Akita M. Development of a precursor in a soluble form for protein import into chloroplasts. International Journal of Bio-Technology and Research (IJBTR). 2016a;6(5):9-18.

Akita M, Pohare MB. Chloroplastic Protein Import Characteristics of Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) Fused Recombinant Precursor Protein in the Presence of Methotrexate. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2016b;13(4):2351- 2358.

Lokhande P, Kharche A, Wagh SG, Manithe D, Harke S. Immune boosting super food supplement from natural resources. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2019;8(5):2108-2113.

Pawar KR, Wagh SG, Daspute AA, Avhad GB, Choudharee PD, Harke SN.In vitroregeneration of potato (Kufri Pukhraj). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2019;8(5):515-518.

Pohare MB, Sharma M, Wagh SG. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and its medical potential. Advances in Biotechnology and Biosciences. 2019;3: 71-90.

Wagh SG, Pohare MB. Current and Future Prospects of Plant Breeding with CRISPR/Cas. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2019;38(3):1- 17.

Juroszek P, Tiedemann AV. Climate change and potential future risks through wheat diseases: A review. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 2013;136:21-33.

Aggarwal R, Srinivas P, Srivastava KD, Singh DV. Soil borne diseases of wheat and their management. In: Naik, Rani D (eds) Advances in Soil Borne Plant Diseases. New India Publishing Agency. 2008;165-217.

Kumar A, Singh US, Kumar J, Garg GK. Application of molecular and immune diagnostic tools for detection, surveillance and quarantine regulation of Karnal bunt (T. indica) of wheat. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2008;19:293-311.

Shakoor MA, Khan MA, Arif MJ, Javed N, Ilyas MB, Arshad M, Sahi ST. Incidence of Karnal bunt disease of wheat in various districts of Punjab during 2006 and 2007 crop years. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 2008;20:190-194.

Sharma RC, Sharma I, Kaur DJ, Bala R. Disease free seed production of wheat in Punjab: Achievements. Journal of Wheat Research. 2011;3:27-29.

Ullah HMZ, Haque MI, Rauf CA, Akhtar LH, Munir M. Comparative virulence in isolates of T. indica and host resistance against Karnal bunt of wheat. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2012;22:467-472.

Fernandez MR, Huber D, Basnyat P, Zentner RP. Impact of agronomic practices on populations of Fusarium and other fungi in cereal and non cereal crop residues on the Canadian Prairies. Soil Tillage Res. 2008;100:60-71.

Wagh SG, Kobayashi K, Yaeno T, Yamaoka N, Masuta C, Nishiguchi M. Rice necrosis mosaic virus, a fungal transmitted Bymovirus: Complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNAs and sub-grouping of bymoviruses. J Gen Plant Pathol 2016b;82:38-43. Available:

Forster RL, Mihuta-Grimm, L, Schaad NW. Black chaff of wheat and barley. Current Information.1986;784:2.

Sands DC, Mizrak G, Hall VN, Kim HK, Bockelman HE, Golden MJ. Seed transmitted bacterial diseases of cereals: epidemiology and control. Arab J. Plant Prot. 1986;4:127-125.

Forster RL, Schaad NW. Evaluation of seed treatments for eradication of Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens from wheat seed. Phytopathology. 1985; 75:1385.

Forster RL, Schaad NW. Tolerance levels of seed borne Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens, the causal agent of black chaff of wheat. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Maryland, USA. 1987; 974-975.

Forster RL, Schaad NW. Longevity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens in wheat seed under two storage conditions. In Z. Klement, ed. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Budapest, Part A.1990;329-331.

Wagh SG, Alam MM, Kobayashi K, Yaeno T, Yamaoka N, Toriba T, Hirano HY, Nishiguchi M. Analysis of rice RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (OsRDR6) gene in response to viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens. J Gen Plant Pathol. 2016a;82:12-17. Available:

Notz R, Maurhofer M, Dubach H, Haas D, Défago G. Fusaric acid-producing strains of Fusarium oxysporum alter 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic gene expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 in vitro and in the rhizosphere of wheat. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2002;68: 2229-2235.

Orton ES, Brown JK. Reduction of growth and reproduction of the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis in the presence of a necrotrophic pathogen. Front. Plant Sci. 2016;7:742.
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016. 00742

Abdullah AS, Moffat CS, Lopez-Ruiz FJ, Gibberd MR, Hamblin J, Zerihun A. Host–multi-pathogen warfare: Pathogen interactions in co-infected plants. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2017;8:1806.

Fakir GA, Rahman MH, Rahman GMM. Survey on the prevalence of black point fungi of wheat in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol. 1989;5:19-29.

Abdullah SK, Atroshi HIM. New records of fungi on wheat grains from Iraq. J. Univ. Zakho.2014;2:256-265.

Brown, JK. Durable resistance of crops to disease: A Darwinian perspective. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2015;53:513–539.

Bhattacharya S. Deadly new wheat disease threatens Europe‘s crops. Nature. 2017;542:145–146.

Wagh SG, Daspute AA, Akhter SM, Bhor SA, Kobayashi K, Nishiguchi M. Relationship between resistance to Rice necrosis mosaic virus and expression levels of rice RNA dependent RNA polymerase 6 (OsRDR6) in various rice cultivars, JARQ. 2019. (In press).

Wagh SG. Comparative updates on Host-Induced Gene Silencing and CRISPR- Cas9 Utilization for Improved Disease Resistance in Crops, Research Journal of Biotechnology. 2019.(In press)