https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/issue/feed Biotechnology Journal International 2024-07-20T06:41:37+00:00 Biotechnology Journal International contact@journalbji.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Biotechnology Journal International (ISSN: 2456-7051)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biotechnology including cell biology, genetics, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology, immunogenetics, cell and tissue culture, molecular ecology, genetic engineering and biological engineering, bioremediation and biodegradation, bioinformatics, biotechnology regulations, pharmacogenomics, gene therapy, plant, animal, microbial and environmental biotechnology. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p><strong>NAAS Score: 4.81 (2024)</strong></p> https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/725 Cattle Artificial Insemination Service in Developing Countries: Efficiency, Major Challenges and Economic Loss: A Review 2024-06-24T07:27:36+00:00 Teweldemedhn Mekonnen teweldem2004@gmail.com Tikabo Gebremariam <p>This review paper summarizes information on the efficiency, major challenges and economic loss of cattle Artificial Insemination (AI) service in developing countries. Efficiency of AI service can be measured by number of services per conception (NSC), conception rate at first insemination, and calving rate (CR). The optimum recommended NSC for profitable dairy cow ranges from 1.0-2.0. The averages of NSC of the conventional AI (1.73) and fixed time AI (1.78) in the reviewed publications were in the ranges of the recommendations of NSC. The NSC varies with animal breeds, animal factor (body condition score, age and parity), semen factor (handling procedure and quality), inseminator factor (knowledge, skill and experience), production systems, management level provided and AI breeding methods. The NSC and calving rate vary with conventional AI and fixed time AI breeding methods. Likewise, calving rate (CR) is influenced by poor semen quality, poor semen handling procedure, inadequate insemination skill, poor oestrus detection and wrong time of insemination. The average success rate (CR) of conventional AI (35.15%) in the reviewed publications is far below the success rates reported in some developing countries. Nevertheless, widespread use and longtime use of AI service on selected genotype(s) can cause cattle biodiversity loss. Dairy producers incur additional costs when cows fail to conceive at their first AI services. Moreover, challenges of AI service comprised of feed scarcity, animal diseases, climate change, poor AI infrastructure, poor livestock husbandry practices, weak livestock extension systems and incapability of Artificial Insemination Technicians (AITs). This calls designing suitable interventions to improve the efficiency of AI services. Adequate feed and high level of management should be provided to the breedable cows and heifers. AI service centers should be established as per the recommended number of breedable cows and heifers. AI inputs including AITs should be always available at each AI service center, and proper AI service recording should be practiced. Sexed semen should be used to enhance the number of replacement heifers, and capacity building should be provided to AITs and community cattle breeders. Radio, television and printed medias should be used to enhance the awareness of the community cattle breeders. Frequent extension support is essential for the success rate of the AI service. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/724 Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Quantification of Impending Genotoxic Impurities in Dapson Drug Substances 2024-06-22T10:34:57+00:00 Haresh B. Patel Rohit H. Dave daverohit23@yahoo.com Sandip Vadariya Hitin Hirpara Trushar Patel <p>The assessment of toxicological concentrations of possible genotoxic contaminants in drug substances was regarded as an important and challenging discipline . The International Conference and Harmonization (ICH) recommended that most pharmaceutical products be allowed to include 1.5 μg/day of a genotoxic contaminant.&nbsp; The goal&nbsp; study was to develop a quick and accurate HPLC method for measuring potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs) in Dapson drug substances. The chromatographic conditions were appropriately optimized with the Phosphate and Acetate buffer on C18 &amp; C8 columns to achieve a decent separation and response of each impurities peak with the Dapsone. A C8 column has been used with Phosphate buffer with the linear gradient combination with Acetonitrile as mobile phase and multiple wavelengths used based on UV maxima of respective impurity. According to International conference of Harmonization (ICH) criteria for the quantification of each impurity, method validation for HPLC was carried out regarding specificity, the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, accuracy (recovery), precision, and solution stability. Three separate batches of Dapsone were successfully subjected to the desired procedures for the Genotoxic (GTI) determination and found not detected.&nbsp; The corelation coefficient observed &gt; 0.99 in linearity and 70% to 130% recovery observed in the accuracy during method validation hence method can be considered linear and accurate and can be used for testing of genotoxic impurity in Dapsone drug substances.</p> 2024-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/726 Microbial Contamination and Nutritional Evaluation of Poultry Feeds in Abidjan District Farms 2024-06-24T07:59:07+00:00 Christelle Suzanne Djoman Eric Essoh Akpa Bernadette Gblossi Goualié bettygoualie@yahoo.fr Ouattara Hadja Djeneba Lamine Samagassi Delphine Yevi N’Guessan <p>This study aims to evaluate the biochemical and microbial quality of poultry feeds&nbsp; in farms of the Abidjan district. Thus, 164 samples of industrial feeds and farmer-formulated feeds&nbsp; were&nbsp; collected&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp; Bingerville, Yopougon, Port-Bouet, Anyama and Songon&nbsp; areas for microbiological and biochemical analysis. The microbiological analysis consisted of isolation and identification of&nbsp; bacterial and fongical flora&nbsp; potentially pathogenic for&nbsp; the animal. The biochemical analysis was aimed to evaluate the nutritional composition of these feeds.&nbsp; Results showed that among these samples, 15 (10.33%), 91 (55.48%) and 48 (29.26%) were positive&nbsp; respectively for <em>Salmonella</em> sp., <em>E. coli</em> and&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus</em> sp. Moreover, biochemical analysis showed low feeds moisture rate levels ranging from 7.52 ± 0.16% to 12.14 ± 0.05%.&nbsp; Feeds formulated by farmers had low content in ash, protein and lipid with proportions ranging from 4.30 ± 0.15% to 11.61 ± 0.24%, 9.30 ± 0.24% to 15.81 ± 0.20% and 2.07 ± 0.02% to 3.68 ± 0.11% respectively when compared to commercial feeds.</p> <p>In conclusion, the study shows a poor hygienic quality of the feeds used in modern poultry husbandry in the Abidjan district.&nbsp; However, the content of analyzed feeds content are mostly in conformity with the recommended standards.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/727 Starch Hydrolyzing Enzyme Production from Fruit Peels using Aspergillus Niger 2024-06-29T07:04:08+00:00 Yash Srivastav neelashsrv76@gmail.com Gourav Thakur Aditya Srivastav <p>Amylase is one of the important industrial enzymes due to its application in detergents, food and textile industries. In the present study, the production of amylase, a starch hydrolysing enzyme, was optimized using Aspergillus niger under various conditions i.e., incubation time, carbon source, pH and temperature. Amylase production by Aspergillus niger using submerged fermentation of mixed fruit peel waste such as sweet lime, banana, cucumber, orange, pomegranate, pineapple, and watermelon was used. The cultural and nutrient requirements of Aspergillus niger for the production of amylase in production media containing different pH, temperature, incubation period, metal ion concentrations, surfactants, carbon sources and nitrogen sources were quantified in the present study. The optimum temperature and incubation period for enzyme production was 37°C and 5th day, respectively. The main objectives of the present study were to use a suitable fungal strain for the production of extracellular alpha-amylase and to determine the time course for the production of alpha-amylase. Thus, this enzyme can be produced cost-effectively using low-cost fruit peel waste and could be utilized in the detergent or textile industry.</p> 2024-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/728 Antimicrobial Potential of Aqueous and Ethanol Extract of Termite and Bee Natural Products on Escherichia coli for Possible Medicinal Purpose 2024-07-15T07:57:47+00:00 Ochiagha Chinemelum Stephanie ochiaghaemel@gmail.com Emmanuel Chimela Ibe <p><strong>Background:</strong> arthropods have been utilized for their socio-economic value as food and medicine for decades in most part of the world. Many traditional healers use insects in their traditional medicine healing system. The idea of utilizing substances collected from insects as medicinal resources, might have originated from the chemical compounds (such as pheromones, venoms, and toxins) sequestered from plants that have shown medicinal value. The study was targeted at investigating the antimicrobial potential of termite and bee natural products on <em>Escherichia coli</em> for possible medicinal purpose. The insects were collected from farmlands (using different insect traps) within Agulu and Nanka communities, Anambra State, Nigeria. The sample was identified and authenticated at the Zoology Department. The insect were killed using killing jar technique, air dried, pulverized and macerated for further investigation. The zoochemical properties and antimicrobial activity of the extract was investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that the constituents, carbohydrate and saponins were present in all the extracts. Tannins, Flavonoids and Terpenoids were present in the ethanol extracts of both insects. The other zoochemicals investigated: Anthraquinones. Alkaloids, Cardiac glycoside, and steroids were not observed in all of the extracts. The water extract of both bee and termite exhibited less activity against <em>E. coli</em>. The ethanol extract of both insects showed <em>E. coli</em> growth inhibition. Based on the distinct zones of inhibition observed. The ethanol extract of termite showed higher inhibition activity (8.33 ± 0.60 mm zone of inhibition), this was followed by the ethanol extract of bee (7.08 ± 1.18 mm zone of inhibition). The aqueous (water) extract of termite (1.33 ± 0.67 mm zone of inhibition) showed higher activity than that of the bee extract (1.00 ± 0.58 mm zone of inhibition).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result of the study showed that ethanol extract of termite and bee contain bioactive constituents with antibacterial effect and lends credence to the entomo-ethno medicinal use of insect in the treatment of bacterial infections.</p> 2024-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/729 Relationship between the Orientation of Leaves in Space and the Rice Development Process 2024-07-16T07:46:29+00:00 Makoundou Alaric alaricmak@gmail.com Ongouya Mouekouba Dalcantara Liana Mbon Nguekou Chrichna Attibayeba <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate plants of SPU-79-96 forms with a short, dense, non-drooping panicle and SPU78-96 plants with a long, drooping panicle. This characteristic of these forms is the vertical arrangement of the leaves on the stem.</p> <p><strong>Methodology and Results:</strong> Four growth components were measured after sowing in the field: the angle of deviation of the leaf from the main stem, leaf area, plant height, and length of the main panicle. The experimental design was a randomized split-plot with three (3) replicates. The lowest values were observed in plants SPU-78-96(10,3 to 11,0<sup>0</sup>), highest in SPU-79-96 (10,7 to 12,7 <sup>0</sup>), the leaf deviation angle in the control variety Nerica 4 was 23,7 to 25,5<sup>0</sup>. The ratio of panicle length to plant height was 23,3 to 29%. Plant yield was higher (1082,4 to 1384,5g/m<sup>2</sup>) in the long panicle and was 59,13% higher than in the control variety.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be concluded that the vertical arrangement of the leaves plays a role in the production process, plants with a higher PAR efficiency accumulate more biomass, thus increasing yields.</p> 2024-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/730 Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Physiological Productivity and Seed Quality of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merill] 2024-07-20T06:41:37+00:00 Prabha Tigga R.K. Samaiya Yogendra Singh yogendrasinghbt@gmail.com Jhilick Banerjee <p>The current study was carried out on soybean variety JS 20-98 seeds that were treated to varying concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). These seeds were used in field studies using Randomised Block Design (RBD) with four replications, and the observations were recorded on phenophasic observations, such as days to 50% flowering, days to pod formation, days to seed formation, days to physiological maturity, and days to field maturity.Determination of dry matter production and its partitioning in various plant parts (leaves, branches, main stem, and pod) at 45 DAS, 60 DAS, 75 DAS, and 90 DAS. Physiological obsdervations (Growth analytical parameters), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Leaf Area Duration (LAD), Crop Growth Rate (CGR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), Specific Leaf Area (SLA), Specific Leaf Weight (SLW), Biomass Duration (BMD), Chlorophyll Content Index (CCI), Relative Water Content (RWC). Yield and yield components included viz; plant height (cm), number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of seeds pod<sup>-1</sup>, pod length (mm), pod width (mm), pod girth (mm), seed index (g), seed yield (g plant<sup>-1</sup>and kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (g plant<sup>-1</sup> and kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), harvest index (%). The biochemical estimation includes moisture (%), ash (%), crude fibre (%), total carbohydrate (%), protein (%), and fat (%). However, seed quality traits include germination (%), seedling length (cm), seed vigour index-I, seed vigour index-II, seedling dry weight (g), root length (cm), and shoot length (cm) in soybean. The treatment GA @ 3 ml L-1 (T5) produced the highest seed yield of 2429.93 kg ha-1, biological yield of 6804.47 kg ha-1, and harvest index of 35.71% among the six PGR treatments on soybean. The greatest value for seed quality parameters, especially germination (%), seedling dry weight (g), seedling length (cm), seed vigour index-I, and seed vigour index-II was recorded under the treatment GA @ 3 ml L-1 (T5).</p> 2024-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.