Biotechnology Journal International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Biotechnology Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7051)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biotechnology including cell biology, genetics, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology,&nbsp; immunogenetics, cell and tissue culture, molecular ecology, genetic engineering and biological engineering, bioremediation and biodegradation, bioinformatics, biotechnology regulations, pharmacogenomics, gene therapy, plant, animal, microbial and environmental biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Biotechnology Journal International 2456-7051 Molecular Detection and Typing of Cervical Human Papillomavirus in a Selected Population in Bayelsa State: Comparison with the National and International Trend and Clinical Significance <p><strong>Background:</strong> The link between cervical lesions and human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 is well established, but the magnitude of the risk of association and the importance of other high-risk hpv types is uncertain in Bayelsa state.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The study was aimed at detecting and typing of cervical hpv among selected subjects, establish the relationship between cervical dysplasia and hpv and also asses the level of knowledge of hpv, perception and attitude of women in Bayelsa State.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Questionnaires were used to assess the level of knowledge of hpv and cervical cancer. Papanicolaou stain for cervical cytology and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain used to study general tissue structure. Nested PCR was used to detect and multiplex PCR for typing. <strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of hpv spectrum among participants was 52% while high risk hpv was 24%. Five (5) subtypes were identified. The subtypes identified were hpv 52(40.4%) most predominant, followed by 51(1.9%), 45(1.9%), 31(1.9%) and hpv 30 (9.6%). The age-specific prevalence showed a peak prevalence of 44.2% in the ages of 25-34 years and lowest in the age group (15-24years). Sequence alignment showed a single point mutation for hpv 45 and several points' mutation for hpv 52 at certain points of the sequenced nucleotides with Sequence no: 53CN12 and SeqH2011055303 and accession no: MG195999 and MG196000. HPV 52 was highest compared to previous studies, national and international. The level of knowledge on hpv infection and cancer of the cervix was low among subjects with a percentage score of 38.9%. Among other variables studied, life time sexual partners showed a statistically significant relationship in the prevalence of hpv (OR=0.02, P˂0.01). Perceived seriousness on hpv infection was high among hpv positive subjects compared with hpv negative participants ( =16.39, <em>p</em> ˂0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The emergence of hpv 52 in the study area requires public health attention and thus urgent need for local hpv vaccines production.</p> Y. I. Oboma A. A. Ngokere Y. M. Tatfeng S. I. Musa I. A. Ibrahim S. E. Itodo A. B. Abdu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 1 16 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230134 Construction of an Agrobacterium Mediated RNAI Genetic Transformation Vector Targeting the Replicase Gene of Indian cassava mosaic virus and Evaluation of Their Transformation Ability in Cassava Immature Leaf Lobes <p>Cassava mosaic virus is one of the major problems affecting cassava industry in India. Currently there are no effective strategy to completely protect cassava from cassava mosaic viruses. In order to attain cassava mosaic virus resistance RNAi vectors targeting the replicase gene of Indian cassava mosaic virus is constructed in this study. Their efficiency to transform cassava immature leaf lobes were also studied here. Replicase gene of Indian cassava mosaic virus in Tamilnadu are cloned and sequenced. Conserved domains are identified and sub cloned to CSIRO RNAi vector system and transformation studies are done in immature cassava leaves. Two different RNAi vectors were constructed, utilizing a conserved 440bp of 5’ end of ICMV Rep (AC1) gene which also corresponds to a part of AC4 gene, and functions as a viral RNAi suppressor protein. The partial <em>Rep</em> gene of ICMV was cloned in sense and anti-sense orientations in the RNAi intermediate vector, pHANNIBAL. After cloning into pHANNIBAL, the cloned RNAi gene cassettes of ICMV is released and cloned into the binary vector, pART27, which contains the kanamycin-resistance gene as a plant selectable marker. In order to use hygromycin as a selection agent in cassava genetic transformation, RNAi–Rep gene cassettes of ICMV were cloned into pCAMBIA1305.2. These constructs were named pICR1 and pICR2 respectively. The Genetic transformation studies in cassava leaves done using pICR2 vector could generate PCR positive plants. An agrobacterium mediated replicase RNAi vector is developed and that can be transformed into cassava immature leaf lobes. Their efficiency to silence the Indian cassava mosaic virus should be studied further.</p> T. Anuradha P. Prabha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 17 24 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230135 Optimization of Selected Process Parameters Affecting Yield of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Activity <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To optimize effects of selected process parameters affecting yield of green synthesized silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Study was designed with 3 factors Box Behnken Design (Minitab 17) and Response optimizer (Minitab 17) was used to determine optimum values of the factors.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, from March to November, 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> After extraction by boiling, qualitative phytochemical analysis of leaves’ extracts of <em>Ipeoma batatas</em>, <em>Commelina africana</em> and <em>Manihot esculenta </em>was carried out. Following synthesis of silver nanoparticles as prescribed by Box Behnken design, yield of AgNPs was optimized with Response optimizer (Minitab 17). Then antibacterial activity of resulting AgNPs was tested against isolates of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>E. coli.</em></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Extracts contained alkaloids, tannins, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, but no sterols and cardiac glycosides. Optimum pH, temperature and time obtained with Response Optimizer resulted in 62.6%, 55.8% and 54.9% increase in yield of AgNPs, with leaf extracts of <em>C. africana, M. esculenta </em>and <em>I. batatas</em> respectively, compared to un-optimized conditions. Absorbance for resulting AgNPs peaked between 380 to 400 nm. Zones of inhibition (mm) of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> with AgNPs synthesized using extracts of <em>C. africana, I. batatas</em> and<em> M. esculenta </em>were 10, 10 and 9 respectively, under un-optimized condition, and 12, 10 and 8 respectively, for optimized conditions. Against <em>E. coli, </em>they were 11, 11 and 12 for AgNPs synthesized with extracts of <em>C. africana, I. batatas</em> and<em> M. esculenta</em> respectively, under un-optimized condition, and 13, 9 and 11 respectively, for optimized conditions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Leaf extracts of <em>C. africana, I. batatas</em> and<em> M. esculenta</em> can be used in synthesizing AgNPs, with marked antibacterial activities. Box Behnken design is useful for optimization of effects of process parameters.</p> F. A. Ekaji C. O. Akujobi S. I. Umeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 25 36 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230136