Biotechnology Journal International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Biotechnology Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7051)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biotechnology including cell biology, genetics, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology,&nbsp; immunogenetics, cell and tissue culture, molecular ecology, genetic engineering and biological engineering, bioremediation and biodegradation, bioinformatics, biotechnology regulations, pharmacogenomics, gene therapy, plant, animal, microbial and environmental biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Biotechnology Journal International 2456-7051 In vitro Callogenesis and Organogenesis from Carolina Reaper (Syn. Capsicum Chinense Jacq.) and Chromosomal Analysis <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this paper is to develop an <em>in vitro</em> organogenesis and callogenesis protocol for Carolina Reaper pepper, and to determine the karyotype and nucleoli of this cultivar.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The MS medium with supplemented with indole-3-butyric (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) and kinetin (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) was used. The leaves and nodal segments of Carolina reaper was utilized for the callogenesis and organogenesis induction. The responses to growth regulators were evaluated 30 days of cultivation. The meristematic tissue was pre-treated with 0.05% (w/v) of colchicine for six hours at 18°C. The samples were fixed in Carnoy for 12 hours. Chromosomal observations were made with binocular optical microscope (Leica DM 750) and the cells in good condition for counting the chromosomes and karyotype assembly were photographed. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and were compared by the two-way Analysis of Variance. The means were separated according to Tukey test (<em>P</em> = 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Calli were induced from both leaf and stem segments when indole-3-butyric 0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> + kinetin 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> were used. Development of shoots in leaf and stem segment were obtained when indole-3-butyric 2 mg L<sup>-1</sup> + kinetin 4 mg L<sup>-1</sup> were used, and roots regenerated with indole-3-butyric 4 mg L<sup>-1</sup> + kinetin 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup>. It was found two nucleoli in every cell interphase, suggesting that two nucleolar organizer regions are expressing their ribosomal genes. Karyotype analysis indicated a chromosome number of 2n = 24, which is correlation with other Capsicum genus varieties. It was observed 1 or 2 nucleoli per nucleus of both types, homomorphic and heteromorphic. The results can help in programs of breeding and conservation of this cultivar and other species of pepper.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Using the concentrations of growth hormones indicated in the present report, it could be possible to regenerate leaves and nodal segments in vitro clones from the original genotype. We have also described the chromosome number and nucleolus number of <em>Carolina reaper</em>, generating a data that could help in programs of breeding, as in the generation of polyploid plants and conservation species of pepper.</p> Bruno Henrique Gomes Fabrícia de Matos Oliveira Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira Robson Jose de Oliveira Júnior ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 1 11 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530113 Assessment of Mutagenicity Induced by Different Mutagens in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) <p>Coriander is one of the most widely used herb. Coriander generally grown for leaf and grain purpose throughout the world. Induction of mutation is considered to be effective in improving various characteristics in plants like seed germination, plant vigour, yield etc. In present study we used three different chemical mutagens Colchicine, Sodium azide (SA) and Methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) on four different varieties of coriander (Green wonder, Cross-91, Mrudul and Surabhi). The study was performed by exposing the seeds of four varieties of coriander (<em>Coriandrum sativum </em>L.) to Colchicine (0.01%,0.02%,0.03% and 0.04%), Sodium azide (SA) at (0.1%,0.2%,0.3% and 0.4%) and Methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) at (0.01%,0.02%,0.03% and 0.04%) respectively. The observations were made on seed germination in field and laboratory conditions and the observations on seedling height, number of primary branches and leaves were made in field conditions. All the mutagens significantly affect the germination and seedling growth. The study revealed that germination percentage, plant height, no. of primary branches and leaves decreased with increase in dose/concentration of mutagen. Among three different chemical mutagen we observed that colchicine is better mutagen for induction of mutagen after that sodium azide (SA) had good results for seed treatment. Some of the concentrations of methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) (0.01% &amp; 0.02%) were better. Among all four varieties of coriander Cross-91 gave better result after that Mrudul and Surabhi respond well to some concentrations. We categories the effectiveness of mutagen to induce mutation in coriander as MMS&gt;SA&gt;Colchicine.</p> Prashant N. Kolhe Mrunalini D. Varne Sumit N. Deshmukh Sanjay N. Harke Sopan G. Wagh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 12 21 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530114 Coffee: Constituents and Health Benefits <p>Since ancient times, coffee has been one of the widely consumed beverages all over the world. It is renowned for its refreshing, body stimulating effect and unique taste. It belongs to the genus <em>Coffea</em>, class <em>Dicotyledoneae</em>, order <em>Rubiales</em> and family <em>Rubiaceae</em>. Coffee is a natural complex chemical mixture constituted of several compounds. It is accountable for numerous bioactivities and a number of compounds exhibit these effects. Some of the significant bioactivities documented are anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity properties. The varying constituents of coffee responsible for the chemo-protective effects are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, diterpenoid alcohols such as kahweol, cafestol and other phenolics. Coffee has been reported to exhibit both protective and adverse effects on various body systems such as skeletal (bone), reproductive, nervous and cardiovascular systems; homocysteine and cholesterol levels and so on<em>. </em>The present review provides an overview of the coffee and its constituents; and their relationship with various diseases.&nbsp; Recent investigations on its health benefits, with focus on their anti-cancer, anti-obesity properties and effect on cardiovascular diseases have also been discussed.</p> Shreya Shah Anil Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 22 38 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530115