Biotechnology Journal International https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Biotechnology Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7051)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biotechnology including cell biology, genetics, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology,&nbsp; immunogenetics, cell and tissue culture, molecular ecology, genetic engineering and biological engineering, bioremediation and biodegradation, bioinformatics, biotechnology regulations, pharmacogenomics, gene therapy, plant, animal, microbial and environmental biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Biotechnology Journal International 2456-7051 Effects of AtSPS on the Growth and Development of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/30147 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>SPS (Sucrose phosphate synthase) participates in plant growth and yield formation, and plays an important role in plant stress resistance. This study used T-DNA insertion mutant of <em>AtSPS </em>in <em>Arabidopsis </em>as test material. The growth indexes and soluble sugar contents of <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> under salt stress, osmotic stress and low temperature stress were determined, which laid the foundation for further understanding the mechanism of SPS in plant growth and development and abiotic stress resistance.</p> <p><strong>Study&nbsp;Design: </strong>In order to analyze the mechanism of SPS in plant growth and development and abiotic stress resistance, this study used T-DNA insertion mutant of <em>AtSPS</em> in <em>Arabidopsis</em> as test material. The growth indexes and soluble sugar contents of<em> Arabidopsis thaliana</em> under salt stress, osmotic stress and low temperature stress were determined.</p> <p><strong>Place&nbsp;and&nbsp;Duration&nbsp;of&nbsp;Study:</strong> College of Biological Science and Technology, between December 2020 and May 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The contents of soluble sugar in tomato fruits were measured with HPLC (High</p> <p>performance liquid chromatography). The growth indexes were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed that <em>AtSPS</em> played positive regulation roles in seed germination and seedling growth of <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em>. However, under abiotic stress conditions, <em>AtSPS</em> mutant increased the contents of soluble sugar, suggesting that <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> seedlings might improve resistance through osmotic regulating substances.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>AtSPS</em> played positive regulation roles in seed germination and seedling growth of <em>Arabidopsis</em>. Meanwhile, <em>AtSPS</em> mutant increased the contents of soluble sugar to increase resistance of <em>Arabidopsis </em>under abiotic stresses, and the growth and development were blocked, suggesting that SPS was negative regulatory element to resist abiotic stress.</p> Bao-Zhen Zhao Yang Yu Zhi Yang Qi Ding Na Cui ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 39 44 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430147 Structural Modelling and in-silico characterization of a Novel Thermophilic β-amylase from Clostridium thermosulfuregenes https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/30144 <p>β-amylase is a hydrolytic enzyme that is involved in breaking down starch and producing energy. Since the discovery of β-amylase, it has been applied in various applications especially in the food industry. In this study, a novel β-amylase from&nbsp;<em>Clostridium thermosuluregen</em>, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments its extracellular emulsion to ethanol at 62 ℃ was modelled and studied using bioinformatics tools and compared with <em>B. cereus</em>&nbsp;β-amylases that functions at mesophilic conditions. The results showed that the overall structural conformations, secondary structures, and important residues involved in active and binding sites were identified in both proteins. The results revealed that the modelled β-amylase of <em>C. thermosulfuregen </em>is very similar with respect to the global conformation, location of active and binding sites. Both proteins showed identical structural domains with the thermophilic variant possessing a high percentage of hydrophobic amino acid residues, polar amino acid residues, and differences in secondary composition such as loops and beta sheets as the potential evolutionary thermal adaptations that make it stable enzyme that functions up to 70 ℃. The results suggest that the thermal stability are not dependent on one single unique mechanism and may use one or a combination of the mechanisms to sustain its structural conformation at a higher operating temperature. Overall, considering the common properties of this modelled protein with the β-amylase of <em>B. cereus</em>, it can be assumed that if the β-amylase of <em>C. thermosulfuregen</em> were expressed <em>in-vitro</em>, it would produce a stable protein that possesses the hydrolysis function for <em>C. thermosulfuregen</em> to break down the starch and sugar formation.</p> Shafiqa Nayel Mohd Shahir Shamsir Farid Ahmad Danishfar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-30 2021-08-30 1 22 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430144 A Study on the Transcriptional Profile of NOS2 and IFN-γ Genes in River Buffalo with Endometritis https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/30146 <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> Uterine lumen contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in buffalo after parturition. Nearly one-third of these infected animals develop endometritis which leads to reduced fertility. The present study aimed to evaluate the expressions of <em>IFN-γ</em> and <em>NOS2</em> genes in uterine tissue of buffaloes with endometritis and comparing them with those in healthy animals using RT-qPCR</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> Uterine samples were collected from 50 apparently healthy and 50 clinically infected buffaloes. RNA was extracted from the collected buffalo's uteri and cDNA was synthesized from extracted RNA. Quantitative Real Time PCR technique was performed using this synthesized cDNA<strong><em>.</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Apparent up-regulation of both genes mRNA expression was recorded in endometritis-infected animals with 8.3-folds for IFN-γ and 9.99-folds for NOS2 (P&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The upregulation of <em>IFN-γ</em> and <em>NOS2</em> expression in the uterine tissue of endometritis-infected buffaloes can be used as a scale for measuring the efficiency of drugs used for endometritis treatment.</p> Othman E. Othman Noha M. Osman Nadia A. Abo El-Maaty Eman R. Mahfouz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 32 38 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430146 Callus Culture as an Alternative Source of Secondary Metabolites in Curtailing Malaria Epidemic https://journalbji.com/index.php/BJI/article/view/30145 <p>Malaria remains a threat to public healthcare system. In 2018, more than 200 million people were exposed to this disease globally. There have been reports of drug-resistance in the recommended therapy in some endemic regions. This called for relentless efforts in the search for potential antimalarial compounds.</p> <p>An <em>in vitro</em> culture technique has emerged as a promising option for sustainable and industrial propagation of plant bioactive compounds with wide range of medicinal properties. The demand for these invaluable metabolites is witnessing a continuous increase as a folk medicine, hence, endangering their existence in natural habitats. Besides its use in natural form, the nature’s gift to humans seems to be restricted and limited by environmental conditions. An <em>in vitro</em> culture approach remains the most viable and sustainable alternative for the endangered plant species. Here, we present some plant species reported to have potential antimalarial activities and recommend further study through callus culture induction against malaria.</p> Daniel Thakuma Tizhe Gali Adamu Ishaku Afiniki Yohanna Dashe Dentsen Fortune Aisha Salihu Jibrin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 23 31 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430145