Open Access Short Research Article

The Effect of Temperature on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Two Invasive Plants in Rorippa

Qiuli Wang, Bo Qu, Juanjuan Mi, Yufeng Xu, Meini Shao

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 39-48
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530116

Aims: By studying the response of seed germination and seedling growth of invasive plants, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, to temperature, the influence of temperature on the invasive ability of two species of Rorippa were further analyzed, which provided a theoretical basis for revealing the diffusion and invasion mechanism of two invasive plants in Rorippa.

Study Design: Seed germination and seedling growth test of two invasive plants in Rorippa at different temperature was studied by means of laboratory culture. The germination percentage, germination index, germination potential of the seeds and the total leaf number, root length, lateral root number, biomass and root shoot ratio of seedlings were determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Seeds were collected from the Shenyang Agricultural University of Liaoning Province in July 2018. Experiments were done in the College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, and conducted in April 2019 for a month.

Methodology: The petri dish method was used at the experiment of seed germination. The seedling growth experiment was carried out by pot sowing.

Results: At the seedling stage.R. amphibia has the strongest tolerance at 30°C, while the R. sylvestris does at 35°C. The low temperature is more beneficial to the accumulations of the seedlings, R. amphibia is the most tolerant at 25°C, and R. sylvestris is at 30°C at the seedling stage.

Conclusion: The response of the seeds and seedlings of the two species to temperature was basically the same. Higher temperature promoted seed germination and inhibited seedling growth, while lower temperature inhibited seed germination. The response of seeds and seedlings of R. sylvestris to high temperature makes it more invasive in the process of global warming.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Callogenesis and Organogenesis from Carolina Reaper (Syn. Capsicum Chinense Jacq.) and Chromosomal Analysis

Bruno Henrique Gomes, Fabrícia de Matos Oliveira, Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira, Robson Jose de Oliveira Júnior

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530113

Aims: The aim of this paper is to develop an in vitro organogenesis and callogenesis protocol for Carolina Reaper pepper, and to determine the karyotype and nucleoli of this cultivar.

Methodology: The MS medium with supplemented with indole-3-butyric (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1) and kinetin (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1) was used. The leaves and nodal segments of Carolina reaper was utilized for the callogenesis and organogenesis induction. The responses to growth regulators were evaluated 30 days of cultivation. The meristematic tissue was pre-treated with 0.05% (w/v) of colchicine for six hours at 18°C. The samples were fixed in Carnoy for 12 hours. Chromosomal observations were made with binocular optical microscope (Leica DM 750) and the cells in good condition for counting the chromosomes and karyotype assembly were photographed. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and were compared by the two-way Analysis of Variance. The means were separated according to Tukey test (P = 0.05).

Results: Calli were induced from both leaf and stem segments when indole-3-butyric 0 mg L-1 + kinetin 1 mg L-1 were used. Development of shoots in leaf and stem segment were obtained when indole-3-butyric 2 mg L-1 + kinetin 4 mg L-1 were used, and roots regenerated with indole-3-butyric 4 mg L-1 + kinetin 1 mg L-1. It was found two nucleoli in every cell interphase, suggesting that two nucleolar organizer regions are expressing their ribosomal genes. Karyotype analysis indicated a chromosome number of 2n = 24, which is correlation with other Capsicum genus varieties. It was observed 1 or 2 nucleoli per nucleus of both types, homomorphic and heteromorphic. The results can help in programs of breeding and conservation of this cultivar and other species of pepper.

Conclusion: Using the concentrations of growth hormones indicated in the present report, it could be possible to regenerate leaves and nodal segments in vitro clones from the original genotype. We have also described the chromosome number and nucleolus number of Carolina reaper, generating a data that could help in programs of breeding, as in the generation of polyploid plants and conservation species of pepper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Mutagenicity Induced by Different Mutagens in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Prashant N. Kolhe, Mrunalini D. Varne, Sumit N. Deshmukh, Sanjay N. Harke, Sopan G. Wagh

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530114

Coriander is one of the most widely used herb. Coriander generally grown for leaf and grain purpose throughout the world. Induction of mutation is considered to be effective in improving various characteristics in plants like seed germination, plant vigour, yield etc. In present study we used three different chemical mutagens Colchicine, Sodium azide (SA) and Methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) on four different varieties of coriander (Green wonder, Cross-91, Mrudul and Surabhi). The study was performed by exposing the seeds of four varieties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) to Colchicine (0.01%,0.02%,0.03% and 0.04%), Sodium azide (SA) at (0.1%,0.2%,0.3% and 0.4%) and Methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) at (0.01%,0.02%,0.03% and 0.04%) respectively. The observations were made on seed germination in field and laboratory conditions and the observations on seedling height, number of primary branches and leaves were made in field conditions. All the mutagens significantly affect the germination and seedling growth. The study revealed that germination percentage, plant height, no. of primary branches and leaves decreased with increase in dose/concentration of mutagen. Among three different chemical mutagen we observed that colchicine is better mutagen for induction of mutagen after that sodium azide (SA) had good results for seed treatment. Some of the concentrations of methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) (0.01% & 0.02%) were better. Among all four varieties of coriander Cross-91 gave better result after that Mrudul and Surabhi respond well to some concentrations. We categories the effectiveness of mutagen to induce mutation in coriander as MMS>SA>Colchicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Characterization of Novel Luciferase from Bioluminescence Fungi Verticillium longisporum

A. A. Yarima, S. M. Sambo, M. D. Kwairanga, K. N. Sharbat, Z. Arifullah, A. Y. Fardami

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 49-73
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530117

Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyses a reaction to produce a visible light using an oxidative process, a chemical reaction that is typically referred to as bioluminescent. Insects, bacterial origin or microorganism of marine nature were considered as the mainly sources of discovered luciferase. The protein was commercialized for biomedical and biotechnological use as reporter gene. The first discovered wild form of luciferase originally from Photinu spyralis (firefly). Hence, there is need for both exploration and examination of novel luciferase to be expanded to new sources such as fungal which may likely be exploited to serve commercial purposes and applications. In this study, a novel uncharacterized luciferase protein from a fungal species Verticillium longisporum, was modelled and analysed using bioinformatic tools. The modelled 3D structure is of high quality with a PROCHECK score of 99.5%, ERRAT2 value of 91.01%, and Verify3D score of91.01%, showing that the conformational structure is acceptable. The result showed that the fungal luciferase enzyme share major characteristics with luciferase representative from various fungal and bacterial species. There is only a slight difference in the two nucleotide bindings in V. longisporum with a D/E substitution of D with E and S/T substitution. The difference of the two nucleotides binding from the two proteins may be related to the evolutionary trends. Other differences include increased number of hydrophobic and polar amino acid groups than aromatic and aliphatic ones, as well as more coils and loops with less strands. The distance between the ligand and the binding site that houses Asp 64 and Thr 110 from template proteins (Riboflavin lyaseRcaE) and Asp 543 and Thr 589 from model luciferase is similar. The only difference occurred in the V. longisporum; protein oxidoreductase activities acts on paired donors, incorporate or reduce molecular oxygen, while in the template protein oxidoreductase activities act on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen. This study on fungal sourced luciferase present a unique opportunity away from the more well established bacterial and insect based luciferase.

Open Access Review Article

Coffee: Constituents and Health Benefits

Shreya Shah, Anil Kumar

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 22-38
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530115

Since ancient times, coffee has been one of the widely consumed beverages all over the world. It is renowned for its refreshing, body stimulating effect and unique taste. It belongs to the genus Coffea, class Dicotyledoneae, order Rubiales and family Rubiaceae. Coffee is a natural complex chemical mixture constituted of several compounds. It is accountable for numerous bioactivities and a number of compounds exhibit these effects. Some of the significant bioactivities documented are anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity properties. The varying constituents of coffee responsible for the chemo-protective effects are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, diterpenoid alcohols such as kahweol, cafestol and other phenolics. Coffee has been reported to exhibit both protective and adverse effects on various body systems such as skeletal (bone), reproductive, nervous and cardiovascular systems; homocysteine and cholesterol levels and so on. The present review provides an overview of the coffee and its constituents; and their relationship with various diseases.  Recent investigations on its health benefits, with focus on their anti-cancer, anti-obesity properties and effect on cardiovascular diseases have also been discussed.