Open Access Original Research Article

Low Cost Micropropagation of Local Varieties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta spp.)

Alex Ngetich, Steven Runo, Omwoyo Ombori, Michael Ngugi, Fanuel Kawaka, Arusei Perpetua, Gitonga Nkanata

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 136-145
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/15614

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate low cost protocol for the micropropagation of three varieties of taro (Dasheen, Eddoe and wild) from eastern Kenya.

Study Design: The plants were grown in polythene bags arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) replicated nine times.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of plant sciences Kenyatta University in plant and tissue culture laboratory, between June 2010 and December 2011.

Methodology: The three media types tested were Omex foliar feed (LCM1), Stanes micronutrients (LCM2) and micro food (LCM3) as substitute for Murashige and Skoog (MS) media.

Results: The results showed significant differences (p˂0.05) in the shoot generation for Eddoe and wild varieties in LCM1 and LCM2 respectively compared to LCM3 and MS. Plants grown in MS media and LCM3 had the longest height compared to LCM1 and LCM2. Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and Citishooter did not show any significant differences on the number of roots. All the regenerated plants in this study were similar in morphology and vigour. Media cost was reduced by 94.7% (LCM1) and 96% for both LCM2 and LCM3.

Conclusion: This study indicates the potential of low cost media as a substitute for conventional micro propagation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assesment of Cocoa Genotypes for Quantitative Pod Traits

Olalekan Ibrahim Sobowale, Benjamin Oluwole Akinyele, Daniel Babasola Adewale

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 146-153
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/15266

Yield related traits in 20 cocoa genotypes were investigated to determine suitable parental genotypes for yield improvement programmes in cocoa. Fifteen uniformly ripe pods were collected for pod and bean characteristic assessment from twenty genotypes in an existing cocoa hybrid trial research plot laid out in a randomized complete block design with six replications at the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan, Nigeria. Seven quantitative data on the pods were subjected to statistical analysis. The 20 genotypes differed significantly (P < 0.001) for the seven traits. Performances of the genotypes ranged as: pod weight (175.40 – 620.50 g), pod length (11.30 – 20.10 cm), pod width (6.37 – 8.90 cm), pod thickness (0.73 – 1.65 cm), number of beans per pod (20 - 52), weight of beans per pod (27.33–119.67 g) and dry weight of hundred beans (52.33 – 115 g). Positive and significant (P < 0.001) correlation existed between pod weight and length, pod width, pod thickness and weight of beans per pod. The range of broad sense heritability was between 56.13 (number of beans per pod) to 81.76 (dry weight of hundred beans). About 86% of the total variation was explained by the first three principal component axes and four distinct groups emerged from the clustering technique. Results show significant (P<0.05) intra-cluster variability of the seven traits and that choosing genotypes G3 (T65/7 x T9/15), G5 (P7 x T60/887), G6 (P7 x PA150), G15 (T86/2 x T22/28) and G16 (T82/27 x T12/11) as parents in future yield improvement programmes will enhance cocoa productivity in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Antioxidant Characterization of Blanched Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Southern Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

F. C. Acho, L. T. Zoué, S. L. Niamké

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 154-164
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/14509

The effect of blanching on the proximate composition, nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Basella alba, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus olitorius, Solanum melongena and Talinum triangulare) used in the preparation of Ivorian diets was investigated. These leafy vegetables were subjected to steam blanching in a pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min. This study highlighted losses (P < 0.05) of nutrients and anti-nutrients components at 15 min of blanching as follow: ash (6.68 – 33.80 %), proteins (0.56 - 15.71 %), vitamin C (4.75 – 73.21 %), carotenoids (18.77 - 72.76%) oxalates (2.16 – 42.62 %) and phytates (20.32 – 71.56 %). Contrary to the registered losses, the average increases of polyphenols and crude fibres contents at 15 min of blanching were 1.51 to 5.19% and 0.62 to 8.87%, respectively. Furthermore after 15 min of blanching time, the residual contents (P < 0.05) of minerals were: calcium (214.71 – 608.95 mg/100 g), magnesium (85.50 – 435 mg/100 g), potassium (1243.32 – 2940.38 mg/100 g), iron (17.07 – 45.86 mg/100 g) and zinc (17.48 – 64.03 mg/100 g). All the results above showed that blanching processing reduces nutritive value of leafy vegetables consumed in Southern Côte d’Ivoire. In order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population, the domestic blanching time must be less than 15 min for preserving the beneficial nutritive properties of the studied leafy vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Antimalarial Activity of Methanol Leaf Extract of Crateva adansonii in Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice

A. N. Tsado, L. Bashir, S. S. Mohammed, I. O. Famous, A. M. Yahaya, M. Shu’aibu, T. Caleb

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 165-173
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/16038

The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanolic leaf extract of Crateva adansonii was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) infected mice. A total of 15 mice were intraperitoneally infected with chloroquine sensitive              P. berghei strain and divided into 5 equal groups, group 1 served as negative control (untreated), groups 2,3 and 4 were given 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg Crateva adansonii methanolic leaves extract respectively while group 5 served as positive control and was given 5 mg\kg chloroquine for five days. The phytochemical constituents of the plant extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of their antimalarial effects. The extract produced a significant dose dependent decrease in the level of parasitaemia when compared to infected untreated group.  Also, the extract at dose of 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg produced significant increase in body weight and PCV of the infected mice as compare to mice treated with 200 mg/kg of extract and infected untreated group. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaves extract contains alkaloids, anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, saponins cardiac glycosides and steroids. It is concluded that Crateva adansonii could serve as a possible source of antimalarial compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and SSR Assessment of Putative Drought Tolerant M3 and F3 Families of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, Kh. F. Al-Azab, S. E. S. Sobieh, M. M. M. Atta

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 174-190
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/15898

In an attempt to develop drought tolerant genotypes of bread wheat, two procedures, i.e., mutation and hybridization were used to induce new genetic variation. Selection for high grain yield/plant (GYPP) and other desirable traits was practiced in the M2 populations of 7 gamma irradiated genotypes and F2 populations of 15 diallel crosses among 6 genotypes of wheat under well watering (WW) and water stress (WS) conditions. Progenies of these selections (53 M3 and 109 F3 families) and their seven parents were evaluated in the field under WW and WS. Significant yield superiority of twelve families (7 M3s and 5 F2s) over their original and better parents, respectively under WS reached 74.71% (SF9). These putative drought tolerant families were assessed on the DNA level using SSR analysis. Fifteen SSR primers were used for PCR amplification of the genomic DNA of these 12 selections and their parents. The SSR analysis proved that the 12 families are genetically different from their 7 parents, with an average polymorphism of 86.67%. The genetic similarities (Gs) ranged from 30% to 88%. Both mutants SF3 and SF4 exhibited very low Gs (42 and 40%, respectively) with their common parent (Giza-168), indicating that gamma rays were very effective in changing the genetic background of Giza-168 towards high GYPP under WS conditions. SSR assay permitted the identification of seven unique bands (5 positive and 2 negative) for three drought tolerant wheat genotypes (SF3, SF4 and Aseel-5). These bands might be considered useful as markers associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat breeding programs.