Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Occurrence of Resident Fungi on Gamma Irradiated and Steam Sterilized Sorghum Grains (Sorghum bicolor L.) for Spawn Production in Ghana

N. K. Kortei, G. T. Odamtten, V. Appiah, M. Obodai, A. Adu-Gyamfi, M. Wiafe- Kwagyan

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 21-32
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/16747

Sorghum is one of the important cereals consumed by humans, animals and also used for the production of mushroom spawns in Ghana.

Aim: Identification of fungi present on sorghum grains before and after pretreatment (steam and gamma radiation) principally for mushroom cultivation.

Methodology: The total number of mycoflora (Log10 CFU g-1) of sorghum grains and their relative frequency (percentage occurrence) associated with the raw grains and the mycoflora present after subjecting the sorghum grains to gamma radiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 32 kGy at a dose rate of 1.7 kGy/h from a Cobalt-60 source (SLL-515, Hungary) and moist heat at a temperature of 100- 120ºC for 2- 2.5 hours was evaluated. Mycological analysis was done by direct plating method on Cooke’s and Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol (DRBC) media.

Results: Nine fungal species belonging to six genera were associated with the sorghum grains. Among these fungi were Cladosporium macrocarpum, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhodotorula spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ochraceous and Aspergillus flavus. Comparatively higher fungal counts of 3.27 and 3.82 Log10 CFU g-1 were recorded for non-pretreated while lower counts of 0.5 Log10 CFU g-1 were recorded for pretreated sorghum grains. Gamma radiation and moist heat significantly (P<0.05) reduced total fungal populations by an average of 2.4 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. Rhodotorula sp. (11.5%), Penicillium sp. (34.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (29.9%) persisted on the moist heat sterilized while only Rhodotorula sp. (100%) persisted on gamma irradiated grains.

Conclusion: These data indicate possible health hazards for humans and animals upon consumption of such contami­nated food grain by toxigenic moulds and also reveal the sensitivity of fungal species to gamma radiation and moist heat as a selective substrate for oyster mushroom spawn preparation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eco-Friendly Approach for Treating Dairy Effluent and Lipid Estimation Using Microalgae

A. Swaroopa Rani, H. R. V. N. Goutham Rao, A. Bharath Kumar, M. Shruthi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/16931

Aim: In this study, an attempt has been made to examine the utility of these species in treating dairy wastewater. Bioreactor was studied using immobilized Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena ambigua to treat dairy effluent.

Study Design: The entire study including the treatment and filtration was conducted in Centre for biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, between November 2014 to February 2015.

Methodology: The treatment of dairy effluent consists of two stages; the first stage includes dairy effluent treatment using immobilised Chlorella vulgaris and Anabeana ambigua, while the second stage involves sand bed and coal bed filtration.

Results: Chlorella vulgaris reported a high lipid content of 12% when compared with Anabaena ambigua 5% after the cultivation period. Whereas the protein content of Anabaena ambigua (40%) was higher than Chlorella vulgaris (28%) when compared with after harvesting. Whilst ammonium nitrate was completely removed by bead treatment it was 96% reduction when treated with Chlorella vulgaris. A 98% removal of phosphates was achieved on an average after algal bead treatment for both species in both modes of operation. Moreover, a significant decrease in BOD and COD was achieved by this method.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that, the cultivation of algae in dairy effluent results the combined advantages of treating the dairy effluent and also producing algal biomass, which can further use of food additives for aquatic culture, animal and human feed, energies such as biogas and fuels and bio-fertiliser.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Polyphenols Extraction Method from Kola Nuts (Cola nitida Vent. Schott & Endl.) Using Experimental Design

Yves B. Nyamien, Olivier Chatigre, Emmanuel N. Koffi, Augustin A. Adima, Henri G. Biego

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/17030

Aims: The aim of this study is to optimize extraction process of phenolics compounds from kola nuts by using experimental design.

Study Design: Kola nuts were collected in October 2014-February 2015 in south of Côte d’Ivoire. Harvested kola nuts were transferred to the laboratory until used in the experiments

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during season 2014-2015 in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Science, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: Nuts were divided into two groups and subdivided to obtain four groups according to their variety (traditional or improved) and morphotype or cultivar (white and red). After drying and powder processing, the effect of six parameters (solvent type, solid-liquid ratio, extraction mode, variety, cultivar and extraction time) on polyphenol extraction from kola nuts were studied. Firstly, a Plackett-Burman design (8 experiments) was used to highlight the most important factors which influence the extraction process. Then, a full factorial design (2k, k=4) was used to optimize the extraction conditions.

Results: Results showed that solvent, ratio (w/v), extraction mode and variety of nuts had significant effect on polyphenols extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest polyphenol content from kola nuts were found with infusion of traditional variety at 1/100 (w/v) ratio with aqueous ethanol 50% (v/v). In the predicted optimal conditions, experimental values were 350 mg/L GAE, 1460 mg/L QE and 264.33 mg/L CE for total polyphenol, total flavonoid and condensed tannin, respectively. Experimental data were very close to the predicted values.

Conclusion: The extractive capability of kola nuts polyphenol is considerably depended on the solvent type, the extraction mode, the solid-liquid ratio (w/v) and nuts variety. Thus, kola nuts can be considered as a natural source of phenolics compounds with good antioxidant capacity. This optimization of the extraction parameters of phenolics compounds from kola nuts is very original, it is the first on a current scale of research on kola nut.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Response and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Finishers Fed with Oxytetracycline and Stonebreaker (Phyllanthus amarus) Leaf Meal

A. D. Ologhobo, I. O. Adejumo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 51-56
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/10304

Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of Phyllanthus amarus leaf meal on haematology and serum biochemical profile of broiler finishers vis a vis oxytetracycline, in order to serve a basis for further study focusing on antibacterial properties of Phyllanthus amarus.

Study Design:  The design of the study was completely randomised design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study lasted for 6 weeks.

Methodology: One hundred and eight mixed-sex (Hybro PG) four-week old chicks were used for the study.

Four dietary treatments were formulated. Each treatment had three replicates, while each replicate had nine birds. The experimental diets contained 0.25% of tetracycline (T1), 0.20%, 0.40%, and 0.60% of Phyllanthus amarus leaf meal for T2, T3, and T4 respectively.

Results: Except for packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb), there were no significant differences across the treatments for all the haematological parameters measured. There were no significant differences across the treatments for all the serum biochemical profile measured except for albumin and alanine amino transferase (ALT). There was significant (P=.05) increase for albumin for all diets containing Phyllanthus amarus leaf meal. The highest mean value was recorded for birds in T3 (1.56 g/dl), followed by those in T2 (1.45 g/dl). Those in control diet (T1) had the least mean value (0.53 g/dl). ALT did not follow a specific pattern.

Conclusion: Phyllanthus amarus leaf meal in the diets of broiler finisher chickens did not pose any health hazards to the haematological parameters and serum biochemical profile of the broiler finishers at the levels of inclusion.

Open Access Review Article

Xylanases–from Microbial Origin to Industrial Application

Bushra Kalim, Nils Böhringer, Nazish Ali, Till F. Schäberle

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/15982

Xylanases are in the focus of research due to their potential to replace many current polluting chemical technologies by biochemical conversion. The field of application for xylanases is vast; it comprises industrial applications like wood pulp bio-bleaching, papermaking and bioethanol production. In addition, these enzymes can be applied as additives in food and beverage industry, and animal nutrition. However, considering the potential applications for these enzymes, the market share of xylanases is still low. Thus, the search for promising xylanases which tolerate relevant processing conditions and therefore can be used in industrial settings is an ongoing task. This review provides an overview of the enzymes reported from 2012 to mid 2014. Further, legal restrictions for the use of (genetically modified) organisms and enzymes are considered. This review provides an integrated perspective on the potential of specific xylanases for industrial applications.