Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Characterization of Fungal Pathogens Associated with the Main Mycoses of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

Komi Lucien Domedjui, Kodjo Djidjolé Etse, Koffi Apeti Gbogbo, Kossi Essotina Kpemoua, Ekanao Tedihou, Rassimwaï Pitekelabou, Tchaou B. P. I. Bodjona, N’pagyendou Lare, Essowè Palanga, Koffi Akpagana

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i4652

Aims: To study the diversity of fungal pathogens associated with cashew mycoses in Togo.

Study Design: This research project was initiated by the Mycology Research and Applications Unit of the Botany and Plant Ecology Laboratory (LBEV) in order to have adequate information on cashew mycoses in Togo.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Botany and Plant Ecology (LBEV) of the University of Lome (UL) and of Crop Protection and Biosafety Laboratory of Togolese Institute of Agronomic Research (ITRA), February to August 2020.

Methodology: A total of 148 symptomatic samples (leaves, buds, inflorescences, nuts, and apples) were collected from cashew trees in the East Mono prefecture of Togo. Malt-agar medium supplemented with chloramphenicol at 0.5 g/l was used for the isolation of fungal pathogens. The characterization of these fungal pathogens was carried out from the 7th day based on their macroscopic (texture, color, diameter of growth) and microscopic (hypha, spore, fruiting body) characters.

Results: This study revealed the presence of five mycoses in cashew orchards in the East Mono prefecture. These are leaf anthracnose, bud’s dieback, black rust, leaf yellowing, and powdery mildew. In total, 12 fungal genera were encountered and 14 species of fungal pathogens were identified on all the samples collected: Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., Mucor sp., Sporotrichum sp., Fusarium nivale, Fusarium moliniforme, Fusarium moliniforme var. subglutinans, Curvularia lunata, Curvularia geneculata, Alternaria tenuissima,  Alternaria brassicisola, Beltrania rhombica Penz., Thielavia coactilis Nicot, Helminthosporium avenae, Helminthosporium siccans, Phoma eupyrena, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger.

Conclusion: It would be of great interest to train cashew producers in the East Mono prefecture on the recognition of the symptoms of these mycoses and their management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Glu298Asp Polymorphism of eNOS Gene with Cardiovascular Diseases

Aldijana Avdic, Admir Kurtcehajic, Vesna Hadziavdic, Amela Hercegovac, Aldijana Dautbasic, Senad Brzovic, Suad Siranovic, Maja Podjanin, Jasmina Dedic, Suada Cipurkovic, Irma Huskic

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 4, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i4654

Molecular-genetic diagnostics of polygenic diseases is a new and interesting area in laboratory diagnostics, especially in the area of cardiovascular diseases, as one of the leading causes of mortality in the world population.

Aims: The aim of the paper was to analyse variants of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) (Glu298Asp/G894T) in the human population of Tuzla Canton in relation to cardiovascular diseases.

Study Design: The study included 112 respondents of both sexes over 18 years old. The experimental group for the analysis of the polymorphism (Glu298Asp) of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene included 56 respondents of both sexes with cardiovascular disease (hypertension), while the control group comprised 56 healthy respondents of both sexes without a prior history of cardiovascular disease (sample/control).

Place and Duration of Study: Blood sampling was performed at Medical Center "Plava Poliklinika", “Plava Medical Group”, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Genetics, Tuzla. DNA isolation and molecular-genetic analysis of the samples were performed in Laboratory for scientific research at the Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Tuzla.

Methodology: The genotyping of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism for all respondents was determined by an optimized method based on PCR-RFLP reaction.

Results: In the total sample of respondents, the highest genotype frequencies of the eNOS gene were recorded for the GG genotype (53.5%) and the GT genotype (35.7%). The lowest frequency was recorded for the TT genotype, which was 10.8%.

Conclusion: The results obtained in the study provide good guidelines for further study of a molecular-genetic association between a high number of gene candidates and cardiovascular diseases, which will contribute to the incorporation of these results into the existing regional and European genetic database.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cyanobacterial Inoculant on Growth and Productivity of Peanut Plants in Sandy Soil

Alaa Abd Elghany Shaheen, Gehan Mohamed Salem, Mona Fekry Ghazal

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 4, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i4655

During the summer growing seasons of 2021 and 2022, two field experiments were conducted at Ismailia Agricultural Research Center Station(Latitude 30ᵒ 35′ 41.901″ N and Longitude 32ᵒ 16′ 45. 843″E) to study the effect of cyanobacterial inoculation (Anabaena oryzae (A. oryzae) and Nostoc mascarum (N. mascarum)) on peanut yield, quality and certain soil biological activities under various nitrogen fertilization conditions and three types of applications, thefirst treatment was carried out as coating seeds with powder of individual of each cyanobacterial strain and the before planted, second treatment seeds were drenched withsuspension of eachcyanobacterial strain individually andthe last treatment was by foliar doses after 15, 45 and 60 days from seeds planting. Results showed that applying cyanobacteria inoculation to peanut plants generally enhanced peanut plant growth, leading to significantly higher yields of peanut and grains than uninoculated treatments. Treatment of N. mascarum + 75% N recorded the highest peanut yield and plant characteristics followed by N. mascarum+ 75% N in soil drench application compared to other tested treatments and types of applications. Cyanobacteria enhanced the amount of N, P, Kand Ca in peanut plants overall. By increasing the total chlorophyl, carotenoids, dehydrogenase, urease activities and nutrients in the peanut rhizosphere, cyanobacteria inoculation had a favorable impact on soil fertility. In general, cyanobacteria inoculation with 75% nitrogen amounts can benefit under peanut growth in sandy soil conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Fungal Pectin Lyase and Polygalacturonase from Fruit Wastes by Solid State Fermentation

Tivkaa Joseph Amande, Benjamin Vandelun Ado, Bukola Christianah Adebayo-Tayo

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 4, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i4656

Polygalacturonase (PG or PGase) and Pectin lyase (PL) are depolymerase enzymes that split the α-1, 4-glycosidic linkages in the backbone of homogalacturonans. They are produced by microorganisms degrading pectin-containing substrates. PG and PL were produced in the solid-state fermentation (SSF) of beans testa (BT), mango peels (MP), Plantain peels (PP), and BT: MP: PP (1:1:1). Substrates were seeded with individual fungal strains namely Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus piperis, Aspergillus parasiticus and Mucor piriformis. PG production ranged from 0.0377 - 141.0095 U/g with A. tamarii, A. terreus and A. piperis producing the highest on mango peels. PL production ranged from 50.50 - 10,852.50 U/g with Mucor piriformis producing the highest on plantain peels. The pH of the fermentation medium changed during growth, metabolism, and pectinase production. The best pH for pectinase production falls within the acidic range. Unconventional substrates such as PP are viable for pectinase production, and PL yield in SSF is improved by compositing substrates.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Cytoskeletal Organization and Its Interaction with Polysaccharides and Enzymes during Primary Cell Wall Development

Rao Saad Rehman, Hassan Bashir, Syed Ali Zafar, Mujahid Ali, Abdullah Javed, Naveed Ali Ashraf, Muzammal Hussain, Ayesha Hussain

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 4, Page 11-28
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i4653

A well-coordinated process is required to construct a complicated structure like the cell wall, which consists of several elements that must be joined appropriately from various sources inside the cell. In order to successfully moderate dynamic responses to developmental and environmental signals, further complexity is necessary. The plasma membrane is continually and actively transporting sugars, enzymes, and other cell wall elements throughout diffused development. Actin filaments and microtubules make up the cytoskeletal pathways used to transport cell wall elements in vesicles during cell division. In addition to these elements, other proteins, vesicles and lipids are transported from and to the cell plate while cytokinesis occurs. Adding additional cell wall material or building a new cell wall requires a rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, which we examine in this review first. We next look at the commonalities between these two processes. Our next topic is the transport of cell wall-building polysaccharides and enzymes via motor proteins and other interactions with the cytoskeleton. Final thoughts on cytokinesis-generated cell walls include a look at some of their unique properties.