Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Characterization of Fungal Pathogens Associated with the Main Mycoses of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

Komi Lucien Domedjui, Kodjo Djidjolé Etse, Koffi Apeti Gbogbo, Kossi Essotina Kpemoua, Ekanao Tedihou, Rassimwaï Pitekelabou, Tchaou B. P. I. Bodjona, N’pagyendou Lare, Essowè Palanga, Koffi Akpagana

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i4652

Aims: To study the diversity of fungal pathogens associated with cashew mycoses in Togo.

Study Design: This research project was initiated by the Mycology Research and Applications Unit of the Botany and Plant Ecology Laboratory (LBEV) in order to have adequate information on cashew mycoses in Togo.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Botany and Plant Ecology (LBEV) of the University of Lome (UL) and of Crop Protection and Biosafety Laboratory of Togolese Institute of Agronomic Research (ITRA), February to August 2020.

Methodology: A total of 148 symptomatic samples (leaves, buds, inflorescences, nuts, and apples) were collected from cashew trees in the East Mono prefecture of Togo. Malt-agar medium supplemented with chloramphenicol at 0.5 g/l was used for the isolation of fungal pathogens. The characterization of these fungal pathogens was carried out from the 7th day based on their macroscopic (texture, color, diameter of growth) and microscopic (hypha, spore, fruiting body) characters.

Results: This study revealed the presence of five mycoses in cashew orchards in the East Mono prefecture. These are leaf anthracnose, bud’s dieback, black rust, leaf yellowing, and powdery mildew. In total, 12 fungal genera were encountered and 14 species of fungal pathogens were identified on all the samples collected: Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., Mucor sp., Sporotrichum sp., Fusarium nivale, Fusarium moliniforme, Fusarium moliniforme var. subglutinans, Curvularia lunata, Curvularia geneculata, Alternaria tenuissima,  Alternaria brassicisola, Beltrania rhombica Penz., Thielavia coactilis Nicot, Helminthosporium avenae, Helminthosporium siccans, Phoma eupyrena, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger.

Conclusion: It would be of great interest to train cashew producers in the East Mono prefecture on the recognition of the symptoms of these mycoses and their management.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Cytoskeletal Organization and Its Interaction with Polysaccharides and Enzymes during Primary Cell Wall Development

Rao Saad Rehman, Hassan Bashir, Syed Ali Zafar, Mujahid Ali, Abdullah Javed, Naveed Ali Ashraf, Muzammal Hussain, Ayesha Hussain

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 11-28
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i4653

A well-coordinated process is required to construct a complicated structure like the cell wall, which consists of several elements that must be joined appropriately from various sources inside the cell. In order to successfully moderate dynamic responses to developmental and environmental signals, further complexity is necessary. The plasma membrane is continually and actively transporting sugars, enzymes, and other cell wall elements throughout diffused development. Actin filaments and microtubules make up the cytoskeletal pathways used to transport cell wall elements in vesicles during cell division. In addition to these elements, other proteins, vesicles and lipids are transported from and to the cell plate while cytokinesis occurs. Adding additional cell wall material or building a new cell wall requires a rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, which we examine in this review first. We next look at the commonalities between these two processes. Our next topic is the transport of cell wall-building polysaccharides and enzymes via motor proteins and other interactions with the cytoskeleton. Final thoughts on cytokinesis-generated cell walls include a look at some of their unique properties.