Open Access Short communication

Phytochemical Screening and Cytotoxic Analysis of Three Local Vegetables Used in the Treatment of Bacterial Diarrhoea in Southern Benin (West Africa): A Comparative Study

A. J. Agbankpé, S. H. Bankolé, F. Assogba, T. V. Dougnon, B. Yèhouénou, J. Gbénou, L. Baba-Moussa

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/19123

The use of plants in traditional medicine become very common nowadays throughout the world and in developing countries in particular. The current study was carried out aiming to compare the chemical features of three vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina, Crateva adansonii and Sesamum radiatum) mostly used for human consumption and traditional medicine to treat bacterial diarrhoea in Benin. These vegetables were selected among the 27 species obtained after ethno-botanical investigations in southern Benin. Therefore, the major chemical groups contained in these vegetables were detected by solubility assays together with coloration and precipitation reactions. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was assessed on shrimp larvae (Artemia salina). The results showed that gallic tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, mucilages, coumarins and reducing compounds were detected in all samples (100%) followed by cathechic tannins (66.66%) and saponins (33.33%). The study also revealed that none of the studied vegetables is cytotoxic (LC50 > 0.01 mg/ml). This study was conducted in the perspective of establishing innovations capable of assisting to; manufacture Improved Traditional Medicines for the treatment of bacterial diarrhoea in the future. Besides, it pointed out the presence of secondary metabolites and the cytotoxicity of these vegetables interesting for further antibacterial, antidiarrheal and pharmacological studies.

Open Access Minireview Article

Genetics in Periodontics

Yashika Jain

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/20443

Periodontal disease does not appear to be a single disease with variations in clinical symptoms but a group of diseases with overlapping symptomatology. The nature of periodontal diseases may be multifactorial. It will be quite important to consider known risk factors for periodontal disease when studying familial clustering or possible genetic mechanisms, because many risk factors for periodontal disease tend to cluster in families through genetic or culture mechanism. It will be important to identify candidate genes that may be the basis for genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease. Genes that may affect immune response to oral bacteria are the most obvious and learning more about traits that predispose to disease, such as tissue response characteristics, may provide additional clues about possible candidate genes. Identification of such genes could enable clinicians better to identify high-risk individuals for targeted prevention and treatment. In the majority of cases, the development of periodontitis in an individual depends probably on the collective presence of a number of environmental risk factors in conjunction with a number of suscepti­bility factors at a given time point during life. The more susceptibility factors an individual has inher­ited, the greater the genetic predisposition and the higher the chance for early development of periodon­titis. With the increasing knowledge of major and modi­fying disease genes it is conceivable that a number of genetic tests will be developed. Database was collected using Medline, Cochrane Datbase of systemic reviews, DARE. Database was collected from last 25 yrs to latest keeping in mind all the changes and new evidences which have evolved during this time. Key concept was kept in mind and synonym terms were searched using MeSH headings by running a preliminary search and noting the terms used in the titles and abstracts as well as the subject headings to make the search more sensitive. Search was made more specific by following the inclusion and exclusion criteria for selecting articles like only those relevant articles were searched which offered knowledge and evidence relating to both periodontitis and genetics. Only articles discussing genetics in general were excluded.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Virulence of an Indigenous Soil Bacillus sp. Prospecting for Mosquito Control

Soumendranath Chatterjee, Tuhin Subhra Ghosh, Tushar Kanti Dangar

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/2699

Aims: Aquatic habitat of the rice fields is the effective breeding site of the mosquitoes whose overcrowding would promote their pathogens. But no attention has been paid to these habitats for isolation and identification of the bacterial biocides. Therefore, the study was envisaged to isolate and identify the mosquitocidal bacteria from the unexplored rice field soil of the Burdwan district             (a premier rice producer), West Bengal, India. It was also aimed to evaluate the virulence of the potent pathogenic organisms in the laboratory and field against the mosquitoes.

Study Design: Laboratory and field study.                                                                                      Place and Duration of the Study: Parasitology and Microbiology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal, India and Microbiology Laboratory, Crop Production Division, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753 006, Orissa, India. The study was conducted between June, 2011 to July 2012.

Methodology: The soils were collected from the rice-fields, serially diluted up to 10-3 level, 100 μl suspension was plated on NA medium and incubated at 30±0.1ºC in the BOD incubator for 72 h. The colonies were checked under a phase-contrast microscope and those having spores were purified by dilution plating on NA plates. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characters of the bacteria were studied following standard methods. The mosquitocidal activity of the selected organism was assessed using different mosquito species both in the laboratory and field.

Results: On the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and 16S rDNA (Acc. no. GU190368) analysis, the selected bacteria (Ts 116) was identified as Bacillus sp. In the laboratory, the LC50s of the Bacillus sp. Ts116 against late third instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ar. subalbatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were (2.37, 2.2 and 9.6) X 106 bacteria/ml, respectively. After 7d, treatment with 100 ml suspension (containing 2.7x106 bacteria/ml) of bacteria/m3 breeding site effected 97.35, 95.65 and 100% mortality of An. subpictus, Ar. subalbatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, respectively.

Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides causes vector-resistance resulting in serious health and environmental hazards. The Bacillus sp. Ts116 (GU190368) of the rice fields had potential to be exploited in mosquito control programms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Pre-release White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Genotypes in Umudike, Southeast, Nigeria

V. C. Ezeocha, I. I. M. Nwankwo, V. N. Ezebuiro

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/20327

Aims: To assess the chemical, functional and sensory properties of some pre-release white yam (D. rotundata) genotypes.

Methodology: Tubers from ten genotypes of white yam (namely; 99/Amo/03, 99/Amo/XA, 99/Amo/080, 99/Amo/109, 99/Amo/064, 99/Amo/060, 99/Amo/010, 99/Amo/95A, 99/Amo/056 and 99/Amo/144) and two local checks (Adaka and Ameh) obtained from the yam programme experimental field of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike were used for this study. The chemical properties (dry matter, ash, starch yield, amylose and amylopectin contents) and functional properties (bulk density, water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and gelatinization temperature) were evaluated using standard methods. Sensory evaluation was conducted on the boiled and pounded yam samples from the different genotypes.

Results: The result indicated that the dry matter content were high in all the genotypes ranging from 30.50% in  genotype  99/Amo/010 to 36.78%  in genotype 99/Amo/144 and the local check (Adaka). The amylose content of starch of the pre-release white yam genotypes were significantly lower than that of the local check, Ameh (P<0.05), however, they were comparable with the second local check, Adaka. The highest water and oil absorption capacities were observed in genotypes 99/Amo/010 (1.550) and 99/Amo/XA, 99/Amo/03 (1.936) and the local check Adaka respectively. The swelling capacity ranged from 105.26% (in genotype 99/Amo/080) to 142.86% (in genotype 99/Amo/XA). In terms of sensory acceptability, the genotype 99/Amo/95A was disliked by the panellists, however, genotype 99/Amo/144 was the most preferred of all the boiled yam samples. Pounded yam from genotypes 99/Amo/95A, 99/Amo/060, 99/Amo/056 and 99/Amo/010 were not acceptable to the panellists while the other varieties produced pounded yam which were acceptable.

Conclusion: The functional properties of the starches showed that some genotypes such as 99/Amo/144, 99/Amo/03, 99/Amo/010, 99/Amo/060, 99/Amo/109 and 99/Amo/XA may find application in industrial food processing. These genotypes are therefore recommended for release to farmers for commercial production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Aromatic Rice Cultivars for Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) Disease Resistance Gene Xa5 through Molecular Marker

Mohammad Saiful Islam, Mamun Mia, Sifate Rabbana Khanom, K. M. Nasiruddin, Mirza Mofazzal Islam

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/20501

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most common devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa) all around the world. Thus, present study has been conducted to screen 12 aromatic rice cultivars (Atashail, Basmati, Kalizira, Uknimodhu, Zira katari, BR5, BR14, Bina dhan9, BRRI dhan34, BRRI dhan37, BRRI dhan38 and BRRI dhan50) for BLB resistant gene xa5. The genotypes were analyzed using two genetic markers (RM 122 and RM 390) by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Where, BR 14 that was resistant to BLB was used as control. Both primers generated different banding patterns. Primer RM 122 produced 6 bands whereas primer RM 390 produced 10 bands, respectively. The highest level of gene diversity value (0.8889) was observed in locus RM 390 and the lowest level of gene diversity value (0.7361) was observed in locus RM122 with a mean diversity of 0.8125. The PIC values ranged from a low of 0.7007 (RM 122) to a high of 0.8785 (RM 390) with an average of 0.7896. Using the linked primer RM 122, the bands of xa5 gene were standardized by the amplified DNAs. The DNA band of 246 bp was considered as resistance line and the DNA band of 230 bp was considered as a susceptible line. Similarly, in case of primer RM 390, 70 bp was considered as a resistance line and 112 bp was considered as susceptible line. Basmati, BRRI dhan50, Kalizira Atasail, Bina dhan9, Uknimodhu, BR 34, BR 37 and Zira Katari all of them found as partial resistant to BLB diseases. However, BRRI dhan38 was found as partial or complete susceptible cultivar.