Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of Biomass and Xanthan Gum Production by Xanthomonas campestris: Optimization of Parameters

Sujata Chavan, M. M. V. Baig

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22431

Aims: To determine the relationship of biomass and xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris and to optimize the environmental and nutritional parameters for their production.

Study Design: X. campestris strains were screened for the production of xanthan gum. Thirty eight strains isolated from various districts in Maharashtra were included for this study. Of these thirty eight strains, one is found to be efficient producer of xanthan gum and slight variation among the strains was recorded. The effect of various parameters viz., time, pH, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source was studied.

Place and Duration of Study: Research laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya, Nanded, India. 

Methodology: Isolation of desired strain was carried out by using various morphological and biochemical tests. Analysis of functional group of synthesized xanthan gum was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy.

Results: It was found that the maximum production of biomass and xanthan gum was recorded at 96 hrs. The optimum pH was 6.5 for biomass and pH 6 for xanthan gum production whereas 35 °C was optimum temperature for both biomass and xanthan gum production. Sucrose was most preferred carbon source for xanthan gum and biomass production while yeast extract was best nitrogen source for xanthan gum production whereas peptone was most suitable nitrogen source for optimum production of biomass.

Conclusion: the optimized environmental and nutritional parameters obtained from this study will further help to maximize the production of Xanthan gum by X. campestris.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Biomarkers of Stress in Meat of Pigs Managed under Different Mixing Treatments

Mamen Oliván, Verónica Fernández-Suárez, Fernando Díaz-Martínez, Verónica Sierra, Ana Coto-Montes, Beatriz de Luxán-Delgado, Raquel Peña, Anna Bassols, Emma Fàbrega, Antoni Dalmau, Antonio Velarde

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22402

Aims: The objective of this work was to apply the proteomic approach for identification of animal-based stress biomarkers during pig muscle maturation.

Study Design: Pigs were subjected to management treatments that may promote stress, like mixing unfamiliar animals on farm and/or during transport and lairage before slaughter. Three pre-slaughter treatments were applied: UF-UTL (Unmixed on Farm - Unmixed during Transport and at Lairage), MF-UTL (Mixed in Farm - Unmixed during Transport and at Lairage) and MF-MTL (Mixed in Farm - Mixed during Transport and at Lairage).

Methodology: Fifteen entire male pigs were used in this experiment. At slaughter, blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Meat quality traits (pH, electrical conductivity, drip loss, meat colour) were measured and muscle samples from the Longissimus thoracis were taken within the first 24 h post-mortem and used for analysis of total antioxidant activity (TAA) and sarcoplasmic protein profile study by SDS-PAGE.

Results: Mixing treatments (MF-UTL and MF-MTL) provoked faster muscle pH post-mortem decline (P= .009), lower total antioxidant activity (P< .001) and changes in some key proteins, like the heat shock 70kDa protein-1B (P= .040), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase “GAPDH” (P= .047), lactate dehydrogenase-A “LDH-A” (P< .001) and adenylate kinase isoenzyme-1 “AK-1” (P< .001). Furthermore, serum molecules related to fat metabolism (LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) and changes of muscle proteins involved in the adenine nucleotide metabolism (AK-1) and glycolysis regulation (piruvate kinase “PK” and GAPDH) allowed accurate prediction of muscle pH and discriminated correctly 87% of meat samples into “no-mixing” or “mixing” treatments.

Conclusions: Early monitorization (within 24 h after slaughter) of selected biomarkers could be used in the meat industry as a tool for detection of situations of pre-slaughter stress related to animal mixing practices. However more research is needed in order to validate these results on a broader animal population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Organic Acids, Anti-Salmonella Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Nigerian Grown Salad Vegetables

Bamidele Tajudeen Akanji, Adeniyi Bolanle Alake

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22551

Aim: To quantitate lactic and acetic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Nigerian grown salad vegetables and investigate their in vitro activities against Salmonella enterica ser Typhi.

Study Design: Two group non randomized experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Molecular Biology & Biotechnology Division between January 2014 and December 2014.

Methodology: LAB isolated from cabbage, carrot, cucumber and lettuce were identified phenotypically and by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Twenty three were investigated for the abilities to produce lactic and acetic acids in growth medium by high performance liquid chromatography following standard protocols. The anti-salmonella activities were performed using acidic and neutralized cell free supernatants (CFS) in agar well diffusion assay according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. The differences in concentrations between the organic acids were determined by pair t- test at 95% confidence interval.

Results: The isolated LAB were Lactobacillus spp, Weissella spp, Pediococcus spp, Uncultured solibacillus RBL-135 and Enterococcus durans RO2-22. They produced the organic acids at varying degrees with significant difference in concentrations (P< .05); E. durans RO2-22 from lettuce produced 52483 µg/ml and 30439 µg/ml followed by W. confusa FS027 from cabbage producing 20480 µg/ml and 17184µg/ml of lactic and acetic acids respectively. The lowest                     (134 µg/ml and 517 µg/ml), was produced by L. johnsonii MH8 from lettuce. Three, L. johnsonii MH8, W. confusa SJL 602 from lettuce and W. confusa FS027 from cabbage produced more acetic than lactic acid.

The acidic CFS of W. cibaria, W. confusa showed between 15-16 mm zones of inhibition while                 P. pentosaceus, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum and L. fermentum showed the least (12- 13 mm).

Conclusion: Most of the selected LAB were able to produce significantly more lactic than acetic acid and their inhibitory activities against the test pathogen was mainly due to low pH.

Open Access Original Research Article

DNA Sequence Characteristics and Phylogenetics of Three Oligonucleotides Markers on Clariid Species

O. T. Agbebi, O. O. Oyelakin, O. A. Adebambo, I. Abduraheem

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/21589

Aims: The aim of this study is to express the profiles of three oligonucleotide markers corresponded to reproductive genes that may be different between the two Clariid species (Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) and their phylogenetics. 

Methodology: Total DNA isolation was carried out on the whole blood of the two strains of Clariid species – 100 species Clarias gariepinus male and female (1.2 – 1.5 kg, 34 – 52 cm) separately; 100 species Heterobranchus bidorsalis (1.7 – 2.2 kg, 38 – 60 cm) respectively using the Quick-gDNA Zymo research kit. Having ascertained the DNA stability on 0.8% agarose gel, NCBI database and Clustal analyses were employed to design primers to reproductive genes that may be different between the two catfishes and may participate in their differential reproducibility. We have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of three selected oligonucleotides markers on the catfish. CLC Sequence viewer 7 software was used to analyze the nucleotide alignment percentage and develop the phylogenetics tree.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Biotechnology Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria between January and July 2014.

Results: We observed a dimorphic expression pattern of the three marker genes in relation to strains and sex differentiation, indicating that sox9a retained its function in testis, Figα was highly expressed in the female and Cyp19a1b was up-regulated in male C. gariepinus than male              H. bidorsalis catfish species. The phylogenetic tree showed that male Heterobranchus and female Clarias were closer irrespective of male or female while male Clarias differed from the two.

Conclusion: To date, these three genes, Sox 9a, Figα and Cyp19a1b have been detected in many fishes, but little or no data has been reported in African catfishes. The findings from this study might be used as the target gene for catfish gender regulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stearoyl-ACP Delta 9 DesaturaseMight not be the only Factor Affecting Unsaturated Fatty Acids Concentration in Oil Palm (Elaeis Sp.)

Heri Adriwan Siregar, Adi Yulandi, Maggy T. Suhartono

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22078

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is currently the major oil-producing plant in the world. E. oleifera is another species of oil palm that is not widely cultivated due to lower productivity. Oil extracted from E. guineensis showed a balance ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids level, while oil from              E. oleifera showed higher unsaturated fatty acids. Long chain-saturated fatty acids are more harmful to health than unsaturated fatty acids. In this research gene encoding steraoyl-Δ9-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase enzyme (SAD, EC 1.14.19.2) was studied, as this is one of the responsible enzyme for biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Analysis were conducted on SAD gene and fatty acids content of E. guineensis, E. oleifera represented by Suriname and Brazil origin and the Hybrids (offspring of crossing between E. guineensis and E. oleifera). The result shows that no amino acid variations among SAD gene were found within E. guineensis and Hybrids, whereas two variations were found between E. oleifera. However, the mutations were found not within the core domains that were the polypeptides, substrates, or ions binding site of the enzyme. Concentration of oleic fatty acid (OLA, C18:1) of E. guineensis, E. oleifera and Hybrids showed variation. This variation might be indirectly influenced by other enzymes that acting prior to SAD such as β-ketoacyl ACP synthase (KAS II) enzyme that result in variation of stearic fatty acid (STA, C18:0) accumulation and thus further OLA content.