Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Using Mango Seed Kernel as an Alternative to Glucose

Khadeejah O. Nasir-Naeem, Kudirat O. Shittu, Adamu Y. Kabiru

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25112

Aim: To explore the possibility of using Mango (Mangifera indica) seed kernel as an alternative to glucose in the production of biodegradable plastic (polyhydroxyalkanoate) using soil isolated Bacillus megaterium.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out at Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Advanced Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex and Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria, between the periods of June 2014 to October 2015.

Methodology: Using fed-batch fermentation technology, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) pellets were produced, extracted and purified via solvent extraction. Polyhydroxyalkanoate produced was quantified using the crotonic acid assay at 235 nm by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was used to characterize the PHA.

Results: Mango seed kernel produced a significantly greater (p<0.05) dry cell weight (DCW) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) (10.60±0.90 g/L; 64.22±0.55%) compared to glucose (10.19±0.01 g/L; 54.40±5.60%). Optimum conditions for maximum production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) were pH 7.5; temperature 35°C; substrate concentration of 2 g/100 ml; Bacilli inoculums volume of 2 ml and an incubation period of 72 hours. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) of extracted PHA revealed C-O, C=O, C-H, O-H functional groups at respective wave bands of 1125.5, 1644.37, 2938.65 and 3399.65 cm-1 for extracted mango seed kernel PHA; and 1086.92, 1646, 2937 and 3403.51 cm-1 for extracted glucose PHA.

Conclusion: Mango (Mangifera indica) seed kernel produced higher dry cell weight and polyhydroxyalkanoate than glucose hence, could be a substitute to glucose in PHA production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Suppression of Fusarium Soil Borne Diseases of Tomato Plants by the Combined Application of Bio Agents and Chitosan

Abdel Radi T. Bakeer, Riad S. R. El-Mohamedy, Nehal M. Saied, Farid Abd-El-Kareem

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24985

Two biocontrol agents, Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis proved their high antagonistic effect against wide spectrum of plant pathogens in many previous works, two commercially  formulated bio agents products, Plant guard (Trichoderma harzianum) and RhizoN               (Bacillus subtilis) and Chitosan at 1.0 g/L were applied as seed bed treatments alone or in combination with chitosan at 0.5 g/L as foliar spray for controlling Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) as well as Fusarium wilt (FW) diseases of tomato plants under field conditions. Field evaluation of these treatments in an area of heavy inoculum and using cv. Super Strain indicated that all tested treatments significantly suppressed disease incidence and severity of FCRR and FW of tomato as compared to untreated controls. The most effective treatments were T. harzianum,                  B. subtilis and Chitosan combined with chitosan at 0.5 g/L. as foliar spray which reduced the disease incidence and disease severity of FCRR and FW of tomato. All tested treatments significantly reduced the density of Fusarium spp. in the treated soil as compared with control. The highest reduction was obtained with T. harzianum, B. subtilis and Chitosan combined with chitosan at 0.5 g/L. as foliar spray. The results showed a significant effect of all the treatments on fruit yield of the tomato plants relative to control. These combined treatments could provide sustainable management of Fusarium crown and root rot as well as Fusarium wilt in tomato under field conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Factor X lll val 34 Leu Polymorphism in Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Stroke among Jordanian Patients: Molecular Analysis

Khaled Al-Kubaisy Al-Kubaisy

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23834

The polymorphism in the factor X lll A-submit gene (F X lll val 34 Leu) has been recongized as a risk factor for primary intracerebral hemorrahge (pich). In addition, F X lll valu 34 leu has a significant ethnic heterogenty.

Objective: To study the possible role of a common mutation in the gene for coagulation factor X lll -A (val 34 Leu) as a risk factor for primary intracerebral hemorrhage stroke (pich) among Jordanian patients.

Patients and Methods: A total thirty patients that have clinically suffered from cerebral hemorragic stroke, who are all aged between (40-62) years were entrolled in this study.

DNA was extracted from plasma samples. Genotyping of F X lll val 34 Leu polymorphism was detected by a 192 bp, PCR-technique and the PCR product was digested with Ddel restriction enzyme.

 

Results: In this study two bands in fragment length (192 bp and (161 bp) were found in seven patients as positive results 25% the other patients showed one fragment of 192 bp as negative results (75%).

Conclusion:  These results suggested that factor Xlll val 34 Leu has a role in the pathogenesis primary intracerebral hemorrhage (pich), this may be related to impaired cross-linking of fibrin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Anti-nutrients and Toxicity Evaluation of Cleome gynandra and Solanum nigrum: Common Indigenous Vegetables in Zimbabwe

Caroline Sango, Lightone Marufu, Clemence Zimudzi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25164

Aim: This study assesses the phytochemical profiles, toxicity and anti-nutrient properties of two indigenous vegetables, Cleome gynandra and Solanum nigrum.

Methodology: Aerial parts of S. nigrum and C. gynandra collected from wild populations were extracted in water and methanol solvents using the cold maceration procedure. Chemical tests to identify different phytochemicals and antinutrients were carried out using specified reagents. Toxicity of the plant extracts was tested using the Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay procedure.

Results: Phytochemical tests indicated presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, phenols and tannins in both S. nigrum and C. gynandra. Anthraquinones were only found in C. gynandra, whereas terpenoids and coumarin glycosides were found only in S. nigrum. The anti-nutrient levels in the vegetables were high; tannins (3.580 and 1.820 mg/                100 g), oxalates (21.560 and 24.97±0.156 g/100 g), saponins (71 and 42%), alkaloids (15.160 and 3.44%) and phytates (0.099±0.046 and 0.250±0.013%) in S. nigrum and C. gynandra respectively. The Brine Shrimp LC₅₀ values obtained were 0.67 and 1.84 mg/ml for methanol and water extracts of S. nigrum and 1.09 and 4.9 mg/ml for C. gynandra, respectively.

Conclusion: The vegetables, C. gynandra and S. nigrum are rich sources of diverse phytochemicals. However, some phytochemicals are present in high levels and might act as anti nutritional factors interfering with absorption of food. C. gynandra is safe for consumption but S. nigrum contains some toxic phytochemicals and should not be taken regularly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Pseudomonas species from Contaminated Soils to Selected Organic (Synthetic) Pesticides

Uduak U. Ndubuisi-Nnaji, Utibe A. Ofon, Godwin E. Udofia

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25493

Growth response profile of three species of Pseudomonas isolated from pesticide contaminated soils within Uyo, Nigeria was studied using standard microbiological and analytical techniques. The ability of the isolates to tolerate varying concentrations of commercially available pesticides namely; Decis, DD force and Cyperforce was assessed over a 96 hour period. Selective enrichment cultures with graded concentrations of the pesticides were used to assay their growth response profile and the absorbance determined using CO75 digital colorimeter. The results showed that the Pseudomonas species differed biochemically. Their growth response at pesticide concentrations 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10% v/v differed significantly (P<0.05) at 24 hours interval for four days. At 10% concentration of Decis pesticide over 96 hour, the absorbance were 0.20, 0.23 and 0.30 for Pseudomonas from Agriculture research farm, hospital dumpsite and municipal waste dump site respectively. This ability therefore offers a veritable tool for use in the bioremediation and ultimate restoration of pesticide contaminated soils but however requires further evaluation.