Open Access Minireview Article

Comparison of Enset Starch with Other Widely Known Commercial Starches and Its Significant Applications in Pharmaceuticals

Anteneh Getachew, Wubalem Desta, Abreham Bekele

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/26896

Enset [Enset ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman], a plant widely cultivated in south and southwest of Ethiopia has been shown to be a rich source of starch. A review regarding comparison of enset starch with other widely known commercial starches and its significant applications in pharmaceuticals was presented. After a brief historical introduction, details of the use of enset crop in Ethiopia were noticed. Many experimental studies suggested that, enset starch has potentials in pharmaceutical industries as tablet excipients as binder and disintegrant, sustained release agent, pharmaceutical gelling agent and other excipients. The review further compare the potentials of enset starch with commercially available other starch in terms of ease of availability, physical and chemical properties and efficiencies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Isolates from Ward Fomites

Farouk Segujja, Bashir Mwambi, Charles Kato Drago, Nathan Musisi Lubowa, Joseph Mugambwa, Patrick Wabuyi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/27861

Aim: The study was conducted to determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among isolates from ward fomites at Kiwoko Hospital and to detect resistances in the form of Macrolide Lincosamide StreptograminB (MLSB), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Extended Spectrum β Lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC, and Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogens.

Study Design: Laboratory based cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in various wards and sections at Kiwoko Hospital, a rural setting in the central region of Uganda, between January and June 2015.

Methodology: We recruited 290 samples from the Surgical, Medical, Maternity and Pediatric wards as well as the Out Patient Department (OPD) at Kiwoko Hospital for the study. Samples were taken by swabbing the different surfaces and instruments which included; sphygmomanometers, stethoscopes, beds, nurses’ stations, staff/visitors’ chairs, door handles, patients’ crepe bandages, curtains, switches, and sink handles among others. Susceptibility testing was done using the disc diffusion methods by Kirby Bauer for phenotypic expression of MLSB resistances, MRSA, MSSA, ESBL, MDR and AmpC. Co-resistances exhibited by isolated ESBL producers were also phenotypically tested.

Results: Of the 290 surfaces and instruments swabbed, 57.59% (CI= 49.18 - 67.01) carried bacterial pathogens and by using standard surface agar plating methods, Staphylococcus aureus was the mostly isolated pathogen 43 (25.75%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 35 (20.96%), Escherichia coli 31 (18.55%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20 (11.98%), Enterococcus faecalis 12 (7.19%), Staphylococcus epidermidis 10 (5.98%), Proteus mirabilis 9 (5.39%), Bacillus spp. 4 (2.40%), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3 (1.80%). Among enterobacteriaceae, 5 (6.67%, CI= 2.16 – 15.56) were identified as AmpC producers and 16 (21.33%, CI= 12.19 - 34.64) as ESBL producers out of which 4/16 (25.00%, CI = 6.81 – 64.01) showed ESBL co-resistance. Of the 43 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 9.30% were MRSA (CI = 2.53 - 23.82) and 90.70% MSSA (CI = 64.49 - 100). In MLSB resistance patterns, 23.26% of the total S. aureus isolates were constitutive MLSB while 6.98% showed inducible MLSB as 27.91% exhibited an MS phenotype. Out of all the isolates recovered from fomites, 27/167 (16.17%, CI = 10.65 – 23.52) were identified as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR).

Conclusion: Hospital fomites harbored resistant pathogens that could well persist for a long period of time thereby predisposing patients to Hospital acquired infections. Therefore, routine screening of clinical samples for MLSB, ESBL, AmpC, MRSA and MDR could significantly monitor potential treatment failures in the management of resistant bacterial infections spread by pathogens on ward items and surfaces at Kiwoko Hospital, Uganda.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Combined Treatment of Ethanol Extract of Moringa oleifera and Pleurotus ostreatus on Blood Glucose, Amylase and Lipid Profile of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats

Tochukwu Anthony Nnadiukwu, C. C. Monago, L. C. Chuku

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/27365

Objective: To investigate the effect of the combined treatment of Moringa oleifera and               Pleurotus ostreatus on blood glucose, amylase and lipid profile of diabetic rats.

Study Design: Animal experimental study.

Place of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science University of Port Harcourt P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt Nigeria.

Year of Analysis: 2015.

Methods: Diabetes mellitus type 1 was induced to the animals intraperitoneally with 120 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. The combined ethanol extract was administered to the diabetic wistar albino rats at a different combination percentage of 60% (1,800 mg/kg) Moringa oleifera and 40% (600 mg/kg) Pleurotus ostreatus and 40% (1,200 mg/kg) Moringa oleifera and 60% (900 mg/kg) Pleurotus ostreatus respectively. The rest of the diabetic rats were treated with 100%             (3,000 mg/kg) Moringa oleifera, 100% (1,500 mg/kg) Pleurotus ostreatus, while 7.1 mg/kg of metformin was used as the standard drug. The effect of the combined treatment of the extracts of Moringa oleifera and Pleurotus ostreatus on the diabetic animals were monitored by measuring the blood glucose, serum amylase and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL) in the blood samples.

Results: The combined ethanol leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Pleurotus ostreatus significantly (p<0.05) lowered the concentration of blood glucose, amylase concentration and cholesterol in the diabetic rats been treated when compared with the diabetic control rats that were not treated.

Conclusion: This study concluded that the combined ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera and Pleurotus ostreatus produced a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and are capable of controlling hyperlipidemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cardiac and Pulmonary Complications in HbE-β Thalassaemia Patients: A Study from West Bengal, Eastern India

Tridip Chatterjee, Kallol Kumar Bhattacharyya, Annesha Das, Ujjalendu Bikash Mondal

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/26529

Aims: Hemoglobinopathies including HbE β thalassemia are associated with significant cardiac and pulmonary compromise in affected persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac and pulmonary health of transfusion dependent 50 HbE β thalassemia patients of West Bengal.

Study Design: 50 transfusion dependent HbE-β thalassaemia patients were selected to evaluate the pulmonary hypertension as it is often associated with anemia.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Out Patient Department of Thalassaemia Control Unit, Imambara Sadar Hospital, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal, India between January, 2014 to December, 2015.

Methodology: We have evaluated the ECG, Echocardiography and Chest X ray to assess the cardiac function. Chest X ray and Spirometry (FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, PFC) were also monitored to evaluate the pulmonary obstruction.

Results: 68% patients showed severe to moderate pulmonary restriction, where as only 10% patients were found to have no significant pulmonary restrictions. The remaining 22% patients showed mild restriction. Other clinical abnormalities found on these HbE-β thalassaemia patents includes palpitation, chest pain, dyspnoea, edema feet and  investigation reveals pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), volume overload of left heart, pulmonary arterial enlargement, cardiomegaly and LVH strain pattern.

Conclusion: In this study, we have found that 68% of all patients showed reportable pulmonary restrictions. Cardiomegaly, volume overload of left heart and LVH strain pattern was found in 26%, 22% and 16% of all patients respectively. Overall, this study will help to get a clear cut and overall idea about the cardiac and pulmonary health of the HbE-β thalassaemia, which ultimately help in the prospective management of the related complications associated with the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Probiotic Strain LBKV-3 on Phagocytic Cells of Children under Age of Ten

S. T. Hajare, T. Geremew

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/26531

There is unequivocal evidence that administration of probiotics could be effective in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in children and the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and nosocomial/community acquired diarrhoea. Encouraging evidence is also emerging for the effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention and management of pouchitis and paediatric atopic diseases, and the prevention of postoperative infections. There is also strong evidence that certain probiotic strains are able to enhance immune function, especially in subjects with less than adequate immune function such as the elderly. This work describes a randomized, double blind, placebo- controlled human clinical trial to investigate the immune effects on tribal children of a fermented product containing probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus LBKV-3, which was compared with another traditional fermented product, Dahi and Buffalo milk. To study the   immunomodulatory effects, implantation abilities of the culture in the GI tract of tribal children, forty-five tribal children of 6-7; 7-8 and 8-9 years were randomly selected and distributed in three groups, each comprising of 15 children in each of the age group. Regular dietary history of the children involved during the feeding trial was obtained. The parents of all children were informed about the importance and the objectives to be ascertained during the study. A formal signed consent was obtained from their parents. The test group of the children was receiving 100 g product volunteers/day of freshly prepared Probiotic Acidophilus Milk P.A.M. containing 107 cfu/g of culture. The control group was receiving 100 g freshly prepared Dahi containing 107 cfu/g of the LAB while blank group of the volunteers was receiving thermal processed (85°C/30 min) buffalo milk containing 5% fat and 10% S.N.F.@ 100 ml/day/volunteer. This feeding trial was continued for 12 weeks. As a result the volunteers assigned to the probiotic group a clear improvement in their intestinal track. The study revealed that probiotics may exert a positive effect on health of tribal children.