Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis in an Ethnomedicinal Plant Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

Archana Pamulaparthi, Mahitha Banala, Rama Swamy Nanna

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28504

Aim: To study the effect of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) for induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from cotyledon and leaflet explants in Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Syn. Cassia alata) an important ethnomedicinal plant used in the treatment of fungal skin infections.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Telangana, India, between June 2013 to September 2014.

Methodology: Cotyledon and leaflet segments (1-3 cm, 20 day old) were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L N6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) /Thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with various concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz., Indole acetic acid (IAA)/ α-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)/2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). The percentage of somatic embryo induction, maturation and plantlet formation is calculated.

Results: Maximum percentage of somatic embryogenesis (91%) was observed in cotyledon explants on MS medium augmented with 0.5 mg/L TDZ in combination with 3.0 mg/L NAA while the highest number of somatic embryos per explant (66.9±0.10) was formed in leaflet explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP+3.0 mg/LNAA followed by 0.5 mg/L TDZ +3.0 mg/LNAA.

Conclusion: Among the explants tested, cotyledon explants were proved to be efficient for induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet development compared to leaflet explants and MS medium fortified with TDZ is more effective compared to BAP in both the cotyledon as well as leaf explants. The developed plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to the research field. The regenerated plants were found to be similar to the donor plant phenotypically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decolorization of Different Azo Dyes and Detoxification of Dyeing Wastewater by Pseudomonas stutzeri (SB_13) Isolated from Textile Dyes Effluent

Amr Fouda, Saad El-Din Hassan, Mohamed Salah Azab, Ebrahim Saied

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28363

Aims: The present study aimed to estimate the decolorization of three individual azo dyes or in mixture, as well the decolorization of dyeing wastewater was evaluated using bacterial strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri (SB_13) or bacterial consortium isolated from textile dyes effluent. The cytotoxicity effect of dyeing wastewater and its biodegraded metabolites, as well the detoxification efficacy were evaluated.

Study Design: Soil and water samples were collected from the textile dyeing industrial area for bacterial isolation. Effect of different parameters on the dye decolorization by bacterial strains was optimized.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in Botany & Microbiology  Department,  Faculty  of  Science,  Al-azhar  University,  from  July  2014  until  January 2016. 

Methodology: Pseudomonas stutzeri strain (SB_13) was isolated from textile dyes effluent and its ability for decolorization of different azo dyes and detoxification of dyeing wastewater samples was investigated. Comparison the decolorization effectiveness of bacterial strain (SB_13) which was used individually and in a bacterial consortium which contains two previously studied Klebsiella strains of (Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) and Klebsiella variicola (Kv)) was also observed. Decolorization of Disperse Blue (R16), Disperse Yellow (D4), and Reactive Red Synozol (R4) dyes which were used singly and in mixture was estimated under different concentrations and incubation conditions.

Results: The highest decolorization rates of single or mixtures of azo dyes were observed with 2% glucose or sucrose, 2% ammonium sulfate, and 3% (v/v) bacterial inoculum size, at pH of 5-7, temperature of 35ºC, and after 72-96 hrs. Mixed cultures of (SB_13 &Kp), (SB_13 &Kv), and (SB_13& Kp& Kv) significantly decolorized 59.5% of Disperse Blue (R16), 52% of Disperse Yellow (D4), and (18.3%) of Reactive Red Synozol (R4) dyes, respectively more than those found by individual strain (SB_13). Individual strain of (SB_13) showed the highest decolorization 61% capacity of azo dyes mixture compared to those observed by bacterial consortiums. The treatment of dyeing wastewater with SB_13 strain significantly reduced the phytotoxicity of wastewater (from 100% of abnormal mitosis to 23.6%) as compared with other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical, Proximate, Mineral and Vitamin Studies on Celosia argentea (Linn.)

C. V. Ilodibia, C. Chukwuka, U. M. Chukwuma, E. E. Akachukwu, N. A. Igboabuchi, R. N. Adimonyemma

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28300

Anatomical, Proximate, Vitamin and Mineral studies were carried out on the various parts (root, stem, leaf and petiole) of Celosia argentea L. using standard techniques. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. Anatomical result revealed similar features in their epidermis and cortex and differences in their vascular bundles arrangement. Proximate analysis revealed that protein and fat contents were highest in the leaf (13.11±0.01%) and (10.61±0.00%) respectively. Crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were highest in the stem (20.85±0.07%), (23.91±0.02%) and (31.11±0.00%) respectively. Vitamins A and C contents were highest in leaf (9.02±0.03 µg/g) and (56.00±3.66 mg/100g) respectively. Mineral analysis showed that Zinc, phosphorus and iron contents were highest in leaf (0.82 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), (39.77±5.06 mg/100 g), (8.19±1.02 mg/100 g) respectively. This work has indicated that Celosia argentea is highly nutritious and should be included in our diet. Apart from the leaf eaten by our people, other parts of the plant (root and stem) should also be used as food. Also the anatomical result is an additional aid to the taxonomic characterization of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Growth of Cronobacter sakazakii IFST082014 in Reconstituted Powdered Infant Milk as Function of Temperature

Md. Fakruddin, Md. Mizanur Rahaman, Md. Nur Hossain, Monzur Morshed Ahmed

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28634

Aims: Cronobacter sakazakii has been associated most frequently with illness in neonates. This study aims to model effect of temperature on growth of a C. sakazakii isolate (IFST082014).

Methodology: Reconstituted powdered infant milk formulas (RIMFs) inoculated with C. sakazakii were incubated at 10, 20, 30 and 40°C.

Results: The primary model showed a good fit (r2 = 0.9714–0.9821) to a Gompertz equation to obtain growth rates and lag times (LTs) at each temperature. The specific growth rate (SGR) of                  C. sakazakii in the RIMF increased, and the LT decreased with increasing temperature. The secondary model was “ln SGR = -0.05879+(0.00588 x temperature)+(0.00045 x temperature2).” The SGR predicted using this model increased with an increasing temperature. This secondary polynomial model was judged as appropriate based on the mean square error (MSE of the SGR model = 0.00016), the coefficient of determination (r2 of the SGR model = 0.9845), the bias factor (Bf of the SGR model = 1.0125) and the accuracy factor (Af of the SGR model = 1.0007).

Conclusion: These results will be useful for industry and regulatory agencies.

Open Access Review Article

Actinobacteria: Versatile Microorganisms with Medical and Pharmaceutical Application

Rosilma de O. Araujo-Melo, Igor F. A. C. Souza, Maria C. V. Vicalvi-Costa, Janete M. de Araújo, Kêsia X. R. F. de Sena, Luana C. B. B. Coelho

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28728

The Actinobacteria receive much attention, since they produce a variety of metabolites, including antibiotics and enzyme inhibitors. These bacteria are distributed in various habitats, including soil, ocean, extreme environments, lichen, plants, and animals. The classification of Actinobacteria based upon the morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characteristics were not adequate to differentiate the genera of this phylum. Following, another identification was available based in the distribution of specific constituents from the cellular wall, such as diaminopimelic acid and carbohydrates. With the advent of molecular biology, the identification of genera and species was more reliable. The screening of microbial natural products has become an important route to discover new bioactive compounds in order to develop new therapeutic agents. Actinobacteria remains one of the leading producers of biopharmaceuticals; endophytic Actinobacteria also yield secondary metabolites with wide range of biological activity. This review focus on gathering relevant information on identification, classification, chemical diversity of Actinobacteria, as well as reveals some biotechnological applications of these bacteria.