Open Access Short communication

Biddulphia (Odontella) sp. Isolated from the Seawater of Kayalpattinam Coastal Area, Gulf of Mannar and Maintained in Tuticorin Research Centre of ICAR-CMFRI

S. Lakshmana Senthil, C. P. Suja, B. Koncies Mary, P. Vijayagopal

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/29300

Aim: Present study was aimed to isolate marine algae from the sea water samples of Kayalpattinam Coastal area, Gulf of Mannar.

Methodology: Seawater samples were collected for the isolation of phytoplankton from the Kayalpattinam Coastal area, Tuticorin on May 2016. The collected seawater was maintained in Walne medium with optimum conditions (light intensity of 1000 Lux, pH of 8.2-8.7, temperature of 18-25°C and salinity of 35 ppt) for obtaining maximum growth.  After the visible change observed, microscopic observation was carried out.

Results: Microscopic observation revealed that the sample contained Biddulphia (Odontella) sp. which is also known as Chinese Diatom. There were significant numbers of the species. It is further confirmed by the morphological identification. It has been maintained in phytoplankton repository of Tuticorin Research Centre, ICAR-CMFRI for sale and research. Cells are observed either in isolated or in the colony which are organized in straight lines or in a zigzag pattern and they are yellow/brown in colour. The size is measured and varied from 25 to 40 µ.

Conclusion: Biddulphia (Odontella) sp. has been widely used as a feed for zooplanktons in aquaculture industry. This is the first report of method to isolate and cultivate this species. Further more research is needed in order to investigate the potential utilization of this species in medicinal, nutritional and other possible useful properties of Biddulphia (Odontella) sp.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Pen Colour and Increased Photoperiod on Performance of Weaned Gilts

O. V. Adelowo, O. A. Adebiyi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/27356

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of colour and increased photoperiod on performance, rectal and body temperature of weaned gilts. Forty cross bred (largewhite x landrace) weaned gilts at 8 weeks with an average weight of 7.70 kg ± 0.07 kg were randomly allotted into four housing colours consisting of a control; (T1: grey colour and normal day length (12 h), while T2, T3 and T4 contained red, blue and green coloured housing, respectively with increased photoperiods of 12, 15 and 18 h. Each treatment was replicated four times. The experimental design was 3x4 factorial arrangements in a completely randomised design. Feed intake and body weight gain were measured weekly throughout the 8 weeks of the experiment. The main effect of pen colour showed that there were significant variations (P<0.05) for final weight of weaned gilt with values ranging from 14.15 ± 0.34 kg (T3) to 18.18 ± 1.46 kg (T2). The same was observed for average weight gain per week (0.91 ± 0.05 kg to 1.48 ± 0.21 kg) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) 2.65 ± 0.26 to 3.49 ± 0.17, respectively. The main effect of photoperiod has significant difference in the final weight, with weaned gilts in 12 h having the highest value of (17.00 ± 0.95 kg) compared to those that were under 15 h (14.82 ± 0.66 kg) and 18 h (13.88 ± 0.26 kg) of lighting. The results also showed that there are significant differences in the average body and rectal temperature across the treatments with the values ranging from the least 37.08±0.19°C (T1) to highest 37.74 ± 0.20°C (T2) and rectal temperature 39.25 ± 0.11°C (T4) to 39.62 ± 0.08°C (T3), respectively. It was observed that gilts in the T3 had the lowest respiratory rate value of 39.80 ± 1.01 breaths/minute while the T1 had the highest value of 42.10 ± 1.86 breaths/minute. It can be concluded from this study that pen colour has an effect on the performance attributes of weaned gilts and increasing the photoperiod will not result in better performance hence, 12 h of lighting is sufficient for increased weight gain in weaned gilts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum Extracts

Linus Usman Akacha, Jatau Yuwel Dikko, Muluh Emmanuel Khan, John Vershima Anyam, John O. Igoli

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28905

The hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the wood and stem bark of Bryophyllum pinnatum were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and activity against selected microorganisms. Phytochemicals found present were reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols. The test microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum spp and Trichophyton rubrum. The Ethyl acetate extracts were the most effective against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and K. Pneumonia (MIC 5.0 mg/mL) and S. dysenteriae, C. albicans, Microsporum spp, and T. rubrum (MIC 10 mg/mL).

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia on the Basis of Biochemistry Tests in the Parakou University Teaching Hospital (Benin)

Moutawakilou Gomina, Adébayo Alassani, Léopold Codjo, Albert Dovonou, Simon Akpona

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28362

Aims: Determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in patients attended in the Parakou University teaching Hospital Biochemistry Laboratory (Republic of Benin).

Study Design:  Cross-sectional retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry Laboratory of the Borgou/Alibori Regional University Teaching Hospital (CHUD-B/A) in Parakou (Republic of Benin); period from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015.

Methodology: Data were collected on the basis of the biochemical test register; they were related to lipid parameters. The criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III were used to identify dyslipidemia.

Results: The frequency of lipid profile request was 8.38%. Sex ratio (Men/Women) was 0.79. The mean age of the target population was 46.84 ± 13.61 years. The different types of dyslipidemia identified were: hypercholesterolemia (37.60%), HDL hypocholesterolemia (39.20%), LDL hypercholesterolemia (39.40%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.17%), mixed hyperlipidemia (6.30%) and atherogenic dyslipidemia (3.00%). HDL hypocholesterolemia was associated with male sex                  (P = .000) whereas LDL hypercholesterolemia was associated with age (P = .03).

Conclusion: Dyslipidemia prevalence high as identified in the study in the CHUD-B/A Biochemistry Laboratory. Studies among the general population should be conducted in order to identify the extent of those types of dyslipidemia in Benin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of a Major Antimicrobial Compound from Stem Bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne)

Mohammed Sani Sallau, Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Hamisu Ibrahim, Abdullahi Yunusa Idris, Habila James Dama

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24436

Medicinal plants have been used as traditional remedies for the treatments of different ailments, and large number of human population still depends on these medicinal plants for their preventive and curative properties Glossonema boveanum is a medicinal plant widely used in a folk medicine in both West and North Africa. Column chromatography of the ethyl acetate extract from stem bark of Glossonema boveanum yielded one pentacyclic triterpenoid (betulinic acid) which is reported for the first time in this plant. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of 1D NMR (1H, 13C and DEPT), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and by comparison with reported data. The compound was then tested for its antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli) and was found to be effective against the bacteria. The result of the MIC revealed that the lowest concentration of betulinic acid that inhibited the growth of the bacteria was 3.125 µg/ml for S. aureus and S. dysenteriae. This study concluded that the stem bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant for the treatment of typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhoea and stomach pain has antibacterial activities against the causative bacteria.