Open Access Minireview Article

Impact of High Glycine Tyrosine KAP Genes on Cashmere Fibre Trait Characteristics

Aadil Ayaz, Zaffar Iqbal, Basharat Ahmad, Nazir Ahmad Ganai, N. Singh, Aarif Ali, Tajamul Mumtaz, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Mir Shabir, Syed Shanaz, Suheel Yousuf Wani

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/35210

Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) represents a world renowned goat famous for production of superfine downfibre “Cashmere”. The worldwide total production of cashmere fibre is about 10000-15000 tonnes per annum. Among all the fibres cashmere is the finest fibre of animal origin, produced in fairly large quantity in the world derived from goat breed indigenous to Asia. The physical properties of cashmere fibres can be attributed to proteins from Keratin family which are primary constituents of the fibre. Keratin proteins (KP) and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) constitute about 90% of cashmere fibre, the said proteins are encoded by the keratin family genes. Keratin-associated protein is one of the major structural proteins of the fibre, whose percentage in fibre has significant effect on its quality. Summing up, the evidence presented in past studies indicated that in the formation of cashmere fibre, there is important role of HGTKAPs in fineness of the fibre. This review summarises the information regarding keratin and keratin associated proteins in a national and international research programme designed to identify and utilize KAP genes of importance in the fibre quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Genotypes for Pod Yield and Yield Contributing Morpho-physiological Components under Mid Hill Conditions of North Western Himalayas

Yudhvir Singh, Simran Sharma, Bhallan Singh Sekhon, Arti Verma, Surbhi Sharma

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/35354

Aims: The present investigation was planned to evaluate thirty five broad bean genotypes along with one check Vikrant-B for yield and some yield contributing morpho-physiological components.

Study Design: Randomized Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was undertaken at Experimental farm of the Department of Vegetable and Floriculture CSK HPKV, Palampur situated at 32° 6' N latitude and 76° 3' E longitude at an elevation of 1290.8 m amsl during 2015-16.

Methodology: The experimental material constituted thirty five genotypes along with one check collected from different parts of country. Observations were recorded on ten randomly selected plants in each replication on days to 50% flowering, node at which 1st flower appears , branches per plant, nodes per plant, plant height (cm), days to maturity, pod length (cm), pods per plant, pod yield per plant (g), pods per node, seeds per pod, seed yield per plant (g), seed size (cm), 100-seed weight, harvest index (%), total soluble solids (oBrix), dry matter (%), ascorbic acid (mg/100 g) and protein content (%). The analysis was carried out using OPSTAT Software following the method suggested by Singh and Chaudhary (1977).

Results: The analysis of variance revealed that mean squares due to genotypes were significant for all the traits. On the basis of mean performance, ‘Local-1-C’ was the top ranking genotype for pod yield per plant which significantly outperformed all the genotypes with an increase of 30.83 per cent over check ‘Vikrant-B’. Further, genotypes viz., HB-123-B and HB-123-C showed superiority for both pod yield and seed yield per plant over check and other genotypes.

Conclusion: The best performing genotypes could be used for further evaluation under different environments to be released as a variety (s) or under hybridization programmes for Broad bean improvement.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Root Extracts of Dacryodes edulis

P. J. Nna, T. A. Tor-Anyiin, J. O. Igoli, M. E. Khan, J. V. Anyam

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/35311

Aims: To screen extracts of Dacryodes edulis phytochemically. To assay the said extracts for antimicrobial activity. To validate or otherwise claims by traditional medicine practitioners on Dacryodes edulis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, from October 2016 to November 2016.

Methodology: Roots of Dacryodes edulis extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were phytochemically screened for presence of secondary metabolites. Anti-microbial assay of extracts was done using Methicillin resist Staph. aureus, vancomycin resist enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis.

Results: Results showed presence of steroid/triterpenes, phenols, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids. Anti-microbial screening of extracts showed sensitivity against six microbes: Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typhi; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin resist, staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited highest zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans (28 mm) and highest growth inhibitory effects (MIC) for the microbes at concentrations of 1.25 mg/mL and 2.5 mg/mL. All other extracts had Minimum Bactericidal/ Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC), values of 2.5 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL respectively.

Conclusion: This study has justified the traditional use of the plant for treatment of various diseases that are caused by these organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Influence of Transgenic Cotton on Beneficial Soil Rhizosphere Microbes

Sivaji Mathivanan, Sridar Raghupathi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/32592

In this study the impact of Bt cotton has been accessed on the population of beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton line (RCH-2 BG II) and its counterpart (a non-Bt cotton line). The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins i.e., Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab were released from root exudates of Bt cotton (RCH-2 BG II) was confirmed by qualitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Rhizosphere soil samples were collected in fifteen days interval i.e., 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens population was more on 15th day in non Bt rhizosphere than Bt except Trichoderma viride, where as in 45th and 60th day all four microbes were more in Bt cotton (RCH-2 BG II) rhizosphere than its counterpart RCH-2. The statistical analysis of the data obtained from the pot cuture showed no significant differences in the numbers of CFU of Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus megaterium (biofertilizer), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride (biocontrol agents) between  rhizosphere soil of Bt and non-Bt cotton. Restriction enzyme analysis of 16S rRNA of Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus megaterium (biofertilizer), Pseudomonas fluorescens and ITS region of Trichoderma viride obtained from Bt and non Bt cotton rhizosphere in different intervals showed similar banding pattern between them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bacillus subtilis TLO3 Amylase Pre-treatment on Ethanol Production from Raw Starches

Slimane Choubane, Ben Amar Cheba

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/35030

Bioethanol is currently the most widely used liquid biofuel in the world. Starch rich crops occupy the first place as biomass for bioethanol production. Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1) are enzymes that hydrolyses starch into sugar units, and pre-treating starch with amylolytic bacteria or directly by amylase might have a positive effect on fermentable sugars concentrations and ultimately result in  increased ethanol yields. 

In this study, an amylase producer strain Bacillus subtilis TLO3 newly isolated from rhizospheric soil was used for amylase production; after investigating the best combination of physico-chemical parameters. The crude enzyme was used for the pre-treatment of raw corn and wheat starches. Immediately afterwards, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was inoculated into the saccharified starch solutions for fermentation. Measures were done for total reducing sugars and ethanol production all along the fermentation process.

Thus, the best amylase production was obtained using 0.5% starch; 0.5% xylose; 0.25% urea; 2.5% NaCl; 3% bacterial inoculum; pH 7; Temperature 50°C and 24h incubation time.

Amounts of reducing sugars of 70% and 91% were obtained after saccharification of wheat and corn starch, respectively, by crude amylase. The fermentation process monitoring showed a continuous decrease in the total sugars, concurrently with an increase in ethanol production that reached 0.92 g/l (2%) for wheat flour and 1.1 g/l (2.4%) for corn flour after 24 h.