Open Access Short Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Ambrosia trifida L. as Revealed by AFLP Markers

Meini Shao, Dandan Fu, Xuezhi Wang, Zhi Liu, Bo Qu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/41343

Aims: Invasion of alien species has become a global problem. Many invaders appear to thrive even with low levels of sequence-based genetic variation, and genetic patterns might congruent with the spatial arrangement of populations.

Study Design: The genetic diversity of giant ragweed was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). There were 5 populations(100 samples), and the distance between the two populations was more than 20 kilometers along with the mainstream of Liaohe.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Liaohe Basin. Experiments were done in the College of Biological Science and Technology, between February 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: The distance between the two populations was more than 20 kilometers. We sampled five populations of Ambrosia trifida L. along Liaohe river in Liaoning province (north-east of China). Leaves for AFLP experiment were stored in discoloration silica gel. Genomic DNA was extracted following the CTAB protocol.

Results: The genetic distances varied with the geographic distances. However, with the influence of many different situations, and many modes of transmission, the discrepancy of genetic distance was reflected. There was low genetic diversity during earlier period of invasion diversity. After a period of invasion, genetic diversity gradually increased. Panshanzha number of polymorphic bands and percentage of polymorphic bands was 98 and 64.47% respectively. Manduhu was 93 and 61.16%, Juliuhe was 100 and 65.79%, Shifosi was 98 and 64.47%, Shuanganqiao was 127 and 83.55%. Shuanganqiao possessed the highest polymorphism.

Conclusion: The source of genetic variation of giant ragweed in Liaohe was gene flow of population. Shuanganqiao might be the spread center.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Herbal Supplement on the Laying Performance and Antioxidant Status of Serum and Egg Yolk of Laying Birds

O. T. Daramola, A. O. Jimoh, O. D. Oloruntola, S. O. Ayodele

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/41401

Aims: The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of herbal supplement on laying performance and antioxidant status of serum and egg yolk of laying birds.

Study Design: The experiment employed a completely randomised design, all data generated were subjected to analysis of variance, P =0.05.

Methodology: A total of ninety-six (26-week old laying birds) of Isa-brown laying birds were used in a 120-day feeding trial. The birds were assigned to 4 dietary treatments replicated eight times with 3 hens per replicate and were fed the control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g/kg garlic powder, 5 g/kg moringa leafmeal and 5 g/kg ginger powder as diets 2,3,4, respectively. The birds were fed with experimental diets for the 120-day period during which data were obtained on laying performance, internal and external egg qualities and antioxidant status of serum and egg yolk.

Results: There was no significant difference in hen day production, feed intake in birds fed control diet and diets supplemented with herbs. Final live-weight and weight change decreased (p<0.05) with dietary herbal supplementation. Supplementation of diets with herbs resulted in a significant increase in egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell surface area compared to the control diet. The yolk weight and albumen weight were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the dietary herbal supplement. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the dietary herbal supplement and was maximised (288 µml-1) at diet 3 likewise, the egg yolk superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased (p<0.05) in the dietary herbal supplement and was maximised (9.21 µml-1) at diet 3.

Conclusion: Diet supplemented with 5 g/kg moringa leafmeal gave optimum performance,  5g/kg moringa leafmeal may be used as feed additive to improve performance, egg qualities characteristics and antioxidant status of serum and egg yolk of laying birds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Analysis for Yield Determing Traits in Sabita/Sambamahsuri Derivatives of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

Anshuman Tiwari, Bhanu Priya

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/42690

The present investigation carried out to study the character association and path analysis in twenty three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Sabita/Sambamahsuri derivatives and four check varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Character association of the yield attributing traits revealed significantly positive association of grain yield per plant with number of panicles per plant (genotypic), panicle weight, panicle length, number of florets per panicle, number of grains per panicle, kernel breadth and harvest index. Hence, selection for these traits can improve yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that ten characters viz. days to maturity, panicle length, number of primary branches per panicle, number of florets per panicle, number of grains per panicle, fertility percentage, grain length, kernel breadth, kernel Length/Breadth (L/B) ratio and harvest index had positive direct effect on yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Ficus carica Latex Peroxidase Isoenzymes

Alshaimaa M. Elsayed, Usama M. Hegazy, Marwa G. A. Hegazy, Somia S. Abdel-Ghany, Walaa H. Salama, Ahmed M. H. Salem, Afaf S. Fahmy

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/42682

Aims: The current study aims to elucidate the potential of Ficus carica latex peroxidase isoenzymes for decolorizing different synthetic dyes in comparison to the commercial horseradish peroxidase.

Study Design: The decolorization of 20 dyes was investigated using the purified F. carica latex peroxidase isoenzymes (purified FP1 and partially purified FP2, and FP3), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a control.

Place and Duration of Study: Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre, Egypt, between January 2017 and March 2018.

Methodology: The purified and partially fractions of peroxidase isolated from latex of F. carica were used for the present study. Stock solutions of the dyes were prepared in 0.05 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and diluted to the requested concentrations ranged from 12 to 330 µM in order to get maximum absorbance does not exceed 1.5 as initial reading. The efficiency of decolorization was expressed in terms of percentage. All experiments were performed in triplicate.

Results: F. carica latex peroxidase isoenzymes and commercial horseradish peroxidase were able to decolorize some of tested dyes and the extent of decolorization achieved with different dyes classes were varied according to different chemical structure of each dye. The decolorization efficiency after 3 h of incubation at 40°C using 6.4 U/ml of peroxidase activity of FP1, FP2, FP3 and HRP, was found to be extremely efficient in decolorizing some dyes and relatively low in other dyes.

Conclusion: The efficiency of F. carica latex peroxidase isoenzymes toward different synthetic dyes meet the prerequisites needed for environmental and industrial applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immobilised Phytase Production from Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 11682 Using an Optimized Media

Sreeja Ajith, Divya Shet, Jyotirmoy Ghosh, A. V. Elangovan

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/43071

Aim: Immobilised fungal phytase production from the novel strain Aspergillus foetidus MTTC 11682 and optimisation of cultural conditions for a better and continuous economic yield.

Study Design: The study was designed based on the classical method of changing one independent variable while fixing all other at a certain level- one factor at a time, a close ended system for the optimisation of fermentation process.

Methodology: Physical and nutritional parameters were optimised for phytase production and subjected to statistical analysis. Adsorption and Entrapment techniques were employed to immobilise the production strain.

Results: The optimum physical conditions for augmenting the yield up to 6 days incubation period were as follows: pH of 3.5, 30ºC temperatures and 5% inoculum size. Amongst the nutritional parameters, lactose and sodium nitrate were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources. K++, Mg++, Mn++ and Fe++ ions supported the phytase production. TritonX 100 and tween 80 showed an inducing effect on the secretion of phytase enzyme. Immobilised fungal phytase production resulted in an increased yield of 32.5% with poly urethane foam (PUF) as the matrix. A scale up fermentation resulted in an activity of 52.7 FTU/mL for immobilised cells as compared to 25.5 FTU/mL by its free counterpart.

Conclusion: Phytase produced in an optimised media employing immobilised Aspergillus foetidus 11682 on poly urethane foam cubes exhibited better phytase activity, improved stability and long shelf life.