Open Access Short Research Article

Regulating Function of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Sugar Metabolism in Tomato Seedlings

Bao-zhen Zhao, Zhong-fen Wu, Wan-tong Peng, Cheng-xiang Zheng, Na Cui

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i230173

Aims: SA (Salicylic acid) is a key regulator for sugar metabolic pathway, but the regulating function on sugar metabolism in tomato seedlings is imperfect. In this study, tomato seedlings were sprayed with SA, and then soluble sugar contents, enzyme related to sugar metabolism levels, gene expressions were determined.

Study Design: In order to analyze the mechanism of SA in sugar metabolic pathway, tomato seedlings were sprayed with SA, and then soluble sugar contents, enzyme related to sugar metabolism levels, gene expressions were determined.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Biological Science and Technology, between December 2021 and May 2022.

Methodology: The expressions of genes related to sugar metabolism in tomato were measured by qRT-PCR. The contents of soluble sugar in tomato seedings were measured with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography).

Results: The sugar metabolism in tomato seedlings was affected by SA treatment for 6 h. The contents of fructose, glucose and sucrose were improved in tomato seedlings by SA treatment. Between 6 to 24 h, enzymatic activities of SlAI, SlNI and SlSS were higher than those in controls, while there was little change in enzyme activity of SISPS.

Conclusion: The contents of soluble sugar, enzyme activities related to sugar metabolism had changed considerably by SA treatment. Especially from 6 h to 24 h after SA treatment, the contents of fructose and glucose were significantly higher than those of the control group, and the changes of sugar contents were mainly related to the increases of enzyme activities of AI, NI and SS, suggesting that SA treatment mainly affected the activities of SlAI, SlNI and SlSS to promote the accumulations of soluble sugars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gravidity on Cardiovascular Markers in Normotensive Pregnant Women

Tomaziga Tomiloba Oladapo-Akinfolarin, Oladapo Mayowa Akinfolarin, Maureen Chibuzor Maduagwu, Tarila Ngowari Aleruchi-Didia

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i230167

 Gravidity, or the number of pregnancies a woman has had, is linked to a number of biochemical alterations, including changes in cardiovascular parameters. These modifications may increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease in this population. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect gravidity has on some cardiovascular markers among normotensive pregnant women. A cross-sectional study of 100 women of reproductive age was carried out at Rivers State University and Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, the subjects were chosen at random for the study. Blood samples were taken and tested for total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, uric acid, and Apolipoprotein A1 and B. Apolipoprotein A1 and B were all measured in blood samples for biochemical analysis. The levels of low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were determined. Graph Pad Prism Version was used to analyze the data from the study. Result gotten from the study showed that Gravidity had no significant effect on biochemical parameters (TC, TG, UA, LDL, Apo A1, Apo B, CRP, and VLDL) in pregnant women (P>0.05), but there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in HDL levels among the group; 0.87 ± 0.21 (1-2), 0.93 ± 0.21 (3-4), 0.86 ± 0.12(5-6) and 1.30 ± 0.00 for (7-8). The effect of gravidity (1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8) on HDL was shown to be significant for ANOVA and Turkey post hoc multiple comparison test; (1-2 vs 7-8) (P= 0.0204) and (5-6 vs 7-8) (P= 0.0250).. This study demonstrated that gravidity had little or no effect on the biochemical parameters but increases the HDL cholesterol level in normotensive pregnant women. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin E on Paraquat Induced Haematological Disorder in Male Albino Rats

Okolonkwo, Benjamin Nnamdi, Jonathan, Nyebuchi, Adjekuko, Ohwonigho Collins, Zebedee, Loveday Udu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i230168

Paraquat is a controversial herbicide that can increase reactive oxygen species levels by undergoing redox cycling and producing reactive oxygen species such superoxide anion. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that modulates oxidation processes in the body due to its particular antioxidant activity. It is a powerful chain-breaking antioxidant that limits the synthesis of reactive oxygen species molecules. The goal of the study was to see if vitamin E had a short-term therapeutic impact on paraquat-induced male albino rats. For the experiment, 200 male albino rats were employed. The 200 rats were separated into four primary groups (A, B, C, and D), each of which included 50 rats and was then subdivided into two subgroups, each with 25 rats. The "A" group was not induced paraquat, but the "B," "C," and "D" groups were induced 0.02g, 0.04g, and 0.06g of paraquat, respectively. The "A" group was divided into two subgroups: "A0" and "AVE," which represented the subgroups that were not given Vit E and those who were given Vit E       (500 mg) respectively. This design was similar for groups "B," "C," and "D." The frequency of paraquat introduction was fortnightly for three months, then followed by vitamin E treatment weekly for two month. After the treatment with Vit E, the rats were sacrificed and blood was taken to analyze several hematological parameters (Hemoglobin concentration [Hb], Packed Cell volume [PCV], Total White blood cell count [T-WBC], Neutrophils and Lymphocytes). These hematological parameters differed significantly across the "Ao," "Bo," "Co," and "Do" groups, at p-value < 0.05. This was equally true for the "Ave," "Bve," "Cve," and "Dve," groups at p-value < 0.05. The findings also revealed that intra-group comparisons of Hb, PCV levels between B0 vs Bve, C0 vs Cve, and D0 vs Dve were significant different, p-value<0.05 whereas WBC, neutrophils and  lymphocytes were not p-value>0.05. This study has shown that PQ insult on anaemia indicators in rats can be corrected by a weekly administration of the vitamin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gravidity on Biochemical Parameters in Normotensive and Hypertensive 3rd Trimester Pregnant Women

Tomaziga Tomiloba Oladapo- Akinfolarin, Oladapo Mayowa Akinfolarin, Maureen Chibuzor Maduagwu, Chikadibia Fyneface Amadi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i230171

Background: Pregnancy is a period in which a woman carries one or more foetus in her uterus. It is typically divided into three trimesters based on gestational age which is measured in weeks and months. Gravidity is referred to the number of times a woman has been pregnant. Pregnancy comes with several changes in metabolism, resulting to changes biochemical markers in pregnant women, some of which to certain extent may pose health risks in those with existing health conditions such as high blood pressure. The study of these changes becomes necessary to determine and arrest the risks should they exist during pregnancy.

Aim: The study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gravidity on biochemical markers in normotensive and hypertensive 3rd trimester pregnant women.

Materials and Methods: At Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 women. The consenting patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of two groups: normotensive (50 normotensive pregnant women at their third trimester) or hypertensive (50 hypertensive pregnant women at their third trimester) (HPW2T). The subjects in each group were subsequently split into three categories depending on gravidity: primigravida (one pregnancy), multigravida (two or more), and grand multigravida (five or more).

For the assessment of TC, TG, HDL, and LDL, fasting blood samples were taken using the venepuncture technique.

AIP, CR-I, CR-II, AC, and APoB/APoA1) biochemical indices were computed quantitatively. At a p<0.05, the data were examined using ANOVA and the Tukey comparison test.

Result: There was no significant difference in the mean levels of the biochemical parameters among the gravidity groups in the normotensive group except for LDL and APoB levels that was significantly higher, p<0.05. The hypertensive group had no significant difference in the mean levels of all studied parameters among the gravidity group, p>0.05..

Conclusion: In this study conducted at Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, gravidity had no impact on most biochemical markers in normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women at their third trimester.

Open Access Review Article

Environmental Effect of KPO-Fire in Niger Delta and Future Health Implication

Amadi Chikadibia Fyneface, Aleruchi-Didia Tarila Ngowari, Konne Felix Eedee, Nyenke Clement Ugochukwu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i230169

Crude oil discovery and exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria which includes Delta, Bayelsa, Abia, Rivers, Cross River, Akwa-Ibom, Imo, Edo and Ondo States of Nigeria, has led to significant economic growth of the nation especially in the creation of job opportunities also the generation of revenue. Unfortunately, Oil thefts have become the idea that replaced the most crisis and agitations in the Niger Delta communities against the perceived neglect of the areas. This had resulted to widespread operation of illegal oil bunkering activities called Kpofire. Kpofire, as described by the Niger deltans, is a process of burning crude oil by illegal oil operatives or thieves at isolated locations called bunkering sites or dumpsites in order to extract refined petroleum products. The design for the extraction of the petroleum products involves the sections of steaming and collection. These sections are connected by a very long pipe. Heat is applied to the steaming section using wood from the mangroves that is called ‘Ngala’ or ‘Agala’, thereafter, crude oil is used. The products extracted are fuel, kerosene and diesel. One of the major problems of Kpofire is the introduction of soot into the environment. Soot is a product is uncontrolled and incomplete combustion or pyrolisis of materials that contain carbon. The highest constituent of soot is the Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The Niger Delta people are faced with daily environmental challenges such as inadequate housing facilities, contaminated drinking water sources, barren lands for agriculture, dead rivers for fishing activities and poor health conditions, soot, which has become a gradual but huge challenge in many Niger Delta communities, has been shown to play a huge role in respiratory, skin, and reproductive health conditions.  However, vulnerability is seen more in babies and children (particularly because their respiratory organs are not matured enough), the elderly, and people with preexisting health conditions, also heart or lung diseases (such as asthma). High exposure to PAH at prenatal stages is linked to a low IQ and lead to increased behavioral problems in the early-age child and childhood asthma. A collective effort is needed to put a stop this menace called kpofire in order to avoid environmental pollution thereby endangering the health of the people of Niger Delta.