Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid on Sugar Metabolism in Tomato Fruits

Xing Hong-Yun, Yu Yang, Zhang Xiao-Ke, Zhang Ying, Wang Tong-Tong, Zhang Yu-Jiao, Cui Na

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530149

Aims: This research explored the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment on sugar metabolism in tomato fruits, and provided theoretical basis for the regulation of ABA on the growth and development of tomato fruits.

Study Design: The whole tomato plant was treated by spraying with 50 mg·L-1 ABA. Spraying distilled water was as the control.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Biological Science and Technology, between February 2019 and March 2020.

Methodology: The contents of soluble sugar in tomato fruits were measured with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography). The enzyme extraction and activities were followed the biochemical method.

Results: Exogenous ABA treatment reduced the weight and transverse meridians of the fruit at the ripening stage, but increased the contents of fructose, glucose and sucrose in the fruit. At the same time, it also increased the activities of acid invertase, neutral invertase, and sucrose phosphate synthase at the ripening stage.

Conclusions: Exogenous ABA treatment was beneficial to the accumulation of sugar in tomato fruit and improved tomato quality. Therefore, it could be applied to tomato production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors for Spoilage of Groundnut Seeds in Shops during Marketing

Z. B. I. A. Boli, W. H. Coulibaly, R. Bamba, W. M. Allouet-Boraud, R. Koffi-Nevry, K. M. Dje

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530150

Post-harvest storage of oilseeds, particularly groundnut, is a real problem for farmers and traders whose stocks are subject to attacks by pests and fungal contaminants in the shops. In order to find alternative solutions to this problem, a survey was conducted in Côte d’Ivoire, specifically in the markets of the communes Abobo, Adjamé and Yopougon in city of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The objective of this work is to evaluate the main risk factors for spoilage of groundnut seeds sold during storage in the Abidjan markets. To this end, a survey was conducted among 75 groundnut seeds sellers in the three aforementioned communes of Abidjan and identified the main risk factors favorable to spoilage of groundnut seeds sold during storage. The lack of exact knowledge of the origin of the groundnut seeds sold (92 to 100%), the storage of groundnut seeds in polyethylene bags (84 to 100%), the lack of knowledge of spoilage (28 to 44%), the long periods of sale (22.2 to 86.7%), moisture (0 to 72.2%) and insect pests (5.6 to 20%° were identified as the main factors of these risk of spoilage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Poplar Allene Oxide Synthase 1 Gene Promoter Drives Rapid and Localized Expression by Wounding

Bin Lei, Christopher J. Frost, Tao Xu, Joshua R. Herr, John E. Carlson, Haiying Liang

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530151

Promoters play critical roles in controlling the transcription of genes and are important as tools to drive heterologous expression for biotechnological applications. In addition to core transcription factor-binding motifs that assist in the binding of RNA polymerases, there are specific nucleotide sequences in a promoter region to allow regulation of gene expression. The allene oxide synthase (AOS) gene family are cytochrome P450s that are responsive to a variety of environmental stress, making them good candidates for the discovery of inducible promoters. Populus AOS homologs separate phylogenetically into two clades. Based on the 19 promoter motifs with significant abundance differences between the two clades, Clade I AOS genes are likely more responsive to hormones, salt, and pathogen, whereas clade II homologs are likely inducible by water stress. In this study, an upstream promoter from a Clade I poplar AOS encoding gene (AOS1) was cloned and used to drive the expression of a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in Arabidopsis. AOS is an essential enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway that is responsible for the production of many non-volatile oxylipins in plants, including the jasmonates, which are regulatory phytohormones coordinating a variety of biological and stress response functions. Consistent with AOS transcript expression patterns, we found that the poplar AOS1 promoter drives rapid and localized expression by wounding. The study provides insight on the responsive elements in the poplar AOS promoters, but more importantly identifies a strong wound-inducible and localized promoter for future applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal Evolution of Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Kola Nuts (Cola nitida Vent Nuts. Schott & Endl.) Processing in Eastern of Côte d’Ivoire

Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Nyamien Yves Bleouh, Coulibaly Adama, Biego Godi Henri

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 29-41
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530152

Aims: The objective of this study is to monitor the evolution of organochlorine residues levels in kola nuts collected from various actors in the eastern producing region of  Côte d'Ivoire.

Study Design: Kola nuts samples were collected from farmers, collectors and urban stores in the Eastern of Côte d’Ivoire.

Place and Duration of Study: Health Department of Hydrology Health and Toxicology, Training and Research Unit of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, running 2016-2019.

Methodology: A total of 225 samples were analyzed using Gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (Agilent 7010B Triple Quadrupole GC/MS System).

Results: Data showed that all 21 pesticides analyzed were detected in kola nuts samples. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in OCPs sub-group used by actors during the three-crop studied. The mean levels of HCHs, DDTs and cyclodienes were ranged from 5±1– 136.67±77.3 µg/kg FW, 5±1 – 116.67±63.2 µg/kg FW and 5±1 - 145±63.2 µg/kg FW, respectively. Otherwise, farmer’s levels of OCPs were lower than those detected in kola nuts from collectors and urban stores samples. Thus, compared to the MRL set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization, the farmer’s samples are lower than limits fixed, unlike the contents registered with collectors and urban stores. In the latter, nearly 80% to 100% of kola nuts collected are contaminated with hexachlorinated residues (HCHs) and heptachlor.

Conclusion: There is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in kola nuts produced in Côte d’Ivoire and take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Care should be taken since residues could pose chronic health risk for adults and children.