Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Initiating Antihypertensive Therapy with Amlodipine or Hydrochlorothiazide on Creatinine Clearance in Hypertensive Nigerians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Godfrey B.S. Iyalomhe, Eric K.I. Omogbai, Osigbemhe O.B. Iyalomhe, Sarah I. Iyalomhe

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 79-89
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2013/2456

Aims: To assess the effects of initiating antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine (AML) or hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) for 48 weeks on creatinine clearance (Clcr) in hypertensive Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Study Design: Randomized, open-label, prospective, outpatient study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria between March 2008 and March 2009.

Methodology: We randomized 40 newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) aged 43-68 years to AML and HCZ treatment groups of 20 patients each (20 males (M) and 20 females (F)) and they were treated monotherapeutically, respectively, with AML 10mg and HCZ 25mg, all given once daily for 48 weeks. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), 24h urine volume, urine creatinine, serum creatinine and the corresponding Clcr for each day were evaluated at baseline before treatment and at the end of weeks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 during treatment.

Results: The 2 drugs significantly reduced BP and at week 48, the mean M vs F systolic BP (SBP)/Diastolic BP (DBP) decrease from baseline for AML group (27.0/17.5 vs 29.5/20.0 mmHg) was more significant than that of HCZ group (23.5/17.5 vs 22.0/16.5 mmHg, P < .01). HCZ caused maximum M vs F diuresis (1593.00 +/- 27.21 vs 1587.00 +/- 30.60 ml) at week 3 and this was significantly higher than that (1526.00 +/- 27.10 vs 1516.00 +/- 22.76 ml, P < .01) produced by AML. Although the treatment effect exerted by the 2 drugs on Clcr was significant (P =.05), time-dependent changes in the mean values, which were higher in AML group, were not significantly different.

Conclusion: It is demonstrated that in hypertensive Nigerians with type 2 DM, single daily doses of these medications do not have a clinically significant effect on Clcr over a long-term monotherapy. Accordingly, with regard to HCZ greater diuresis which may cause problems particularly in the elderly, AML appears to be a preferred logical alternative to substitute for low dose HCZ therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance in Pearl Millet (Penisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) Genotypes

Musa Ishag Mohamed Subi, Atif Elsadig Idris

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 54-65
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2013/2214

Fifteen genotypes of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.) were evaluated at Sudan University of Science and Technology, The Demonstration Farm, College of Agricultural Studies, Shambat, during the summer season 2009 and 2010. The present study was conducted to assess the magnitude of genetic variability, heritability in broad sense and genetic advance among fifteen pearl millet genotypes for some growth and grain yield characters. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used at each season. Highly significant differences (P≤ 0.01) were observed for days to 50% flowering and days to maturity in the both seasons, for plant height, leaf area, number of grains /plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield (t/ha) in the summer season of 2009, for panicle length in the summer season of 2010. Also highly significant differences were observed for genotypes and genotypes × seasons interaction for days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. In general phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) estimates were higher than genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) estimates for all the studied characters in all genotypes displaying the influence of environment effect on the studied characters. The combined results for heritability showed that the high estimates of heritability and genetic advance were scored for days to 50% flowering and days to maturity indicating that these characters were under the control of additive genetic effects. The genotypes ICMV155 and SADC (long) scored the most minimum days to maturity (68) days whereas, the genotypes ICMW221 and Ugandi scored the highest yield values of 2.20 and 2.05(t/ha), respectively. Such genotypes can be manipulated for further improvement in millet breeding programs at the Sudan.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Locally Fabricated Pelletizing Machine on the Chemical and Microbial Composition of Organic Fertilizer

T. B. Hammed

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2013/2044

In order to make organic fertilizer more quantifiable and attractive to farmers, a pelletizing machine was fabricated locally to produce pellets from powdery fertilizer. However, concerns have been raised on the potential impacts this process could have on the quality of organic fertilizer. An experimental study design with laboratory analysis was adopted. The study took place at Alesinloye market solid waste recycling complex, Ibadan Nigeria, in April, 2012. Samples of both powdery fertilizer and pellets were collected for chemical analysis. Total bacterial count was also determined in the laboratory. The results were subjected to student t- test statistics to compare the means. The variations in the levels of N (2.14 ± 0.02%; 2.39 ± 0.01%), C (37.19 ± 0.01%; 39.25 ± 0.01%), Na (0.1 ± 0.01%; 0.12 ± 0.01%), Ca (1.09 ± 0.01%; 1.16 ± 0.02%) and all heavy metals analyzed:  Mn (123.50 ± 0.50 mg/kg; 131.50 ± 0.50 mg/kg), Fe (2,083.00 ± 8.00 mg/kg; 2,135.50 ± 1.50 mg/kg), Cu (224.50 ± 1.50 mg/kg; 238.00 ± 1.00 mg/kg), Zn (305.00 ± 1.00 mg/kg; 330.00 ±1.00 mg/kg), Pb (13.75 ± 0.15 mg/kg; 15.70 ± 0.10 mg/kg), Cd (0.82 ± 0.02 mg/kg; 1.08 ± 0.02 mg/kg), Ni (6.68 ± 0.02 mg/kg; 7.12 ± 0.02 mg/kg), and Cr (7.88 ± 0.03 mg/kg; 8.81 ± 0.01 mg/kg) for pellet and powdery fertilizers respectively was significant (P =.05). The microbial count was significantly lower in pellets than powdery fertilizer. It is evident in this study that pelletizing improved the quality of organic fertilizer due to the significant reduction of heavy metals and bacterial. Though pelletizing significantly reduced the levels of major nutrients as well, the effects were minimal as the pelletized fertilizer still fulfilled the standards organic fertilizer requirements. It is therefore recommended that organic fertilizers should be pelletized before their usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Estrogen and Folic Acid on High Fat Induced Hypercholesterolemic Mice

S. Akter, M. A. Miah, M. A. H. N. A. Khan, M. K. Islam

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 39-53
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2013/2003

Aims: To elucidate the effect of estrogen and folic acid on high fat (butter) induced lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG)) and on tissue texture changes in mice.

Designs: Randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology and Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh between January 2012 and April2012.

Methodology: 2 months old 50 male Swiss Albino mice (Mus musculus) were used for this study and divided into equal groups. Group A (control) was fed with normal rat pellet. Mice in the group B was fed with butter; group C was fed with butter and estrogen; group D was fed with butter and folic acid and group E was fed with butter, estrogen and folic acid. The atheroprotective effect of estrogen and folic acid was evaluated based on weight gain, biochemical parameters and histopathology.

Results: The highest body weight gain was detected in group B (P<0.001). In biochemical study, group B showed the increase in total plasma cholesterol, especially low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG) (P<0.001) compared to other treated groups. Group C, D and E showed a lower level of total plasma cholesterol (P<0.001) compared to group B. Among them group E showed the lowest total plasma cholesterol level (P<0.001). In histopathological study, the aorta of butter treated group showed sloughing of lining endothelium, increased aortic wall thickness and loss of integrity of tunica intima. It also revealed fatty changes in liver in animal models fed with butter, compared with those on a normal diet.

Conclusions: 20% butter supplementation would be able to cause a rise in lipid profile and produce degenerative changes in aorta and liver and addition of estrogen or folic acid in butter supplemented diet counteracts the adverse effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosorption of Lead by Pleurotus florida and Trichoderma viride

A. S. Arun Prasad, G. Varatharaju, C. Anushri, S. Dhivyasree

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 66-78
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2013/2348

Aims: The objective of the work is to remove Pb2+ by Pleurotus florida and Trichoderma viride in batch studies and to study the kinetics and adsorption isotherm of Pb2+  adsorption by fungal species and to determine the desorption performance by suitable desorbing agents.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and duration of the study: This work was carried out at Department of Biotechnology, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, and India for a period of five months.

Methodology: The polluted sample was collected from Valankulam lake, Coimbatore. The biomass of Pleurotus florida and Trichoderma viride were used as adsorbents. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to quantify Pb2+ concentration. The optimum conditions of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time for biosorption were determined.

Results: Maximum adsorption of Pb2+ for Trichoderma viride and Pleurotus florida were observed at a pH of 6 and 7 respectively. The optimum quantities of adsorbent required for the removal of Pb2+ were 0.2g for both the organisms. Adsorption of Pb2+ was found to reach equilibrium in 1 h and 1.5 h for Pleurotus florida and Trichoderma viride respectively.

Conclusion: Hence, Pleurotus florida and Tricoderma viride are suitable adsorbents for the removal of Pb2+ from effluents. This methodology can be used for the removal of lead from waste water before its disposal.

Open Access Review Article

Xylanases: An Overview

Meeta Sharma, Anil Kumar

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-28
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2013/1784

Endo-1, 4-β-xylanase (Endo-β-1, 4-xylan, xylanohydrolase; EC. 3.2.1.8, commonly called xylanase) is an industrially important enzyme which degrades xylan randomly and produces xylooligosaccharides, xylobiose and xylose. It is mainly present in microbes and plants but not in animals. Xylanases from fungal and bacterial sources have been extensively studied and produced commercially. Its potential use in paper industries has been discussed which is directly related to reduction in environmental pollution. It has role in bio-bleaching paper pulp and increasing pulp brightness. Besides, it can be exploited for ethanol production and as an additive in animal feedstock to improve its nutritional value. Endo-1, 4-β-xylanase can also be exploited in baking and fruit juice industries. Here, we reviewed its distribution, structural aspects and industrial/ biotechnological applications. Besides, we also discussed studies related to cloning of the gene encoding endo-1, 4-β-xylanase with the objectives of overproducing the enzyme and altering its properties to suit commercial applications

Open Access Review Article

Application of Molecular Microbiology Techniques in Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons and Other Pollutants

Chioma Blaise Chikere

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 90-115
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2013/2389

Molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized microbial ecology by paving the way for rapid, high-throughput methods for culture-independent assessment and exploitation of microbial communities present in complex ecosystems like crude-oil/hydrocarbon polluted soil. The soil microbial community is relatively diverse with a high level of prokaryotic diversity. This soil species pool represents a gold mine for genes involved in the biodegradation of different classes of pollutants. Currently, less than 1% of this diversity is culturable by traditional cultivation techniques. The application of molecular microbiology techniques in studying microbial populations in polluted sites without the need for culturing has led to the discovery of novel and unrecognized microorganisms and as such complex microbial diversity and dynamics in contaminated soil offer a resounding opportunity for bioremediation strategies. The combination of PCR-amplification of metagenomic DNA, microbial community profiling techniques and identification of catabolic genes are ways to elucidate the composition, functions and interactions of microbial communities during bioremediation. In this review, an overview of the different applications of molecular methods in bioremediation of hydrocarbons and other pollutants in environmental matrices and an outline of the recent advances in this fast-developing field are given.