Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Tertiary Care Hospitals

N. Kaur, R. Prasad, A. Varma

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 228-235
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/4245

Aims: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen in hospitals with hospital based outbreaks world-wide. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of MRSA isolates in clinical specimens and to investigate the sensitivity pattern of resistant isolates against various antibiotics used for treating hospitalized patients.

Study Design: The percentage of MRSA was defined as the number of S. aureus isolates resistant to methicillin divided by the total number of S. aureus isolates for which methicillin susceptibility test results were reported.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted during January 2012 to December 2012 at Asian Hospital (tertiary care hospital), Faridabad, Delhi.

Methodology: A total of 107 isolates of S. aureus were identified by standard laboratory procedures including catalase test, slide and tube coagulase tests, β- haemolysis on blood agar and growth on mannitol salt agar. Subsequently, antibiotic sensitivity pattern of S. aureus were determined by automated antibiotic susceptibility testing system Vitek 2 compact identification and susceptibility testing (ID/AST) system by using AST-GP-67 card.

Result: 23 isolates (21.4%) were identified as MRSA and the remaining 84 (78.6%) were methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). All MRSA isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of these isolates were high against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (91.3%), erythromycin (47.8%), gentamicin (43.5%), moxifloxacin (42.9%), and less resistance rate was observed against tetracycline (30.4%) rifampicin (13.6%) and clindamycin (4.8%). However, all isolates of Staphylococcus were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, quinpristin/daflopristin.

Conclusion: Findings presented in this study indicated a high level of resistance to widely used therapeutic agents. An appropriate knowledge on the current antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA is essential for appropriate therapeutic scenario.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kerosene: A Study of Serum Vitamin Levels of Female Wistar Rats Chronically Exposed

Ayobola A. Iyanda

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 236-243
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/3130

Background: Kerosene is a commonly available product used for cooking and lighting purposes in many parts of Asia and Africa where it is sold in beverage bottles and jerry cans in both commercial and residential places because of inadequate filling stations. Therefore excessive exposure through both dermal and oral routes is common. Objective: This study is embarked upon to determine the impact of trace amount of kerosene on serum vitamin levels in female Wistar rats.

Methods: Kerosene (0.4 ml/kg body weight) was administered to rats either through the oral or dermal route daily for a period of 30 days and the levels of vitamins were estimated using the high performance liquid chromatography technique. 

Results: Using Student t test only pantothenic acid was not significantly (p>0.05) different when oral or dermal group was compared with control, all other vitamins were significantly decreased (p<0.05), Moreover, using ANOVA, riboflavin, folic, niacin and vitamins A and D were more depleted in rats in oral route of administration than those in dermal group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that exposure to this product either through the oral or dermal route may be detrimental to health as it induced vitamin depletion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Amino Acid Composition of Raw and Defatted African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Kernel

Ogungbenle Henry Niyi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 244-253
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/7609

The proximate, mineral, functional properties, anti-nutrients and amino acid compositions of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds have been investigated. The results showed that seeds contained ash (2.49 g/100g), moisture (5.79 g/100g), protein (10.64 g/100g), fat (54.67 g/100g), fibre (8.35g/100g) and carbohydrate (18.67 g/100g). The predominant mineral was magnesium (54.53 mg/kg). Water absorption, oil absorption and oil emulsion capacities were relatively high while foaming capacity and least gelation concentration were low.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Type and Age of Primary Somatic Embryo on Secondary and Cyclic Somatic Embryogenesis of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Jelili T. Opabode, Olufemi O. Oyelakin, Oluyemisi A. Akinyemiju, Ivan L. Ingelbrecht

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 254-269
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/3624

This study investigated the influence of age of the cotyledons, cut from primary somatic embryos (PSE) developed from shoot meristems (SM) or immature leaf lobes (LL), on secondary somatic (SSE) and cyclic (CSE) embryogenesis of two cassava cultivars at the Central Biotech Laboratory, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, between 2006 and 2010. A completely randomized design with three replicates was used for the study. Only PSE at the age of 4 weeks recorded significant (P<0.05) differences in SSE frequency and efficiency between the SM and LL sources. CSE production was highest using 0 to 4 weeks old SSE cotyledons, and significant (P<0.05) differences were only recorded between the SM and LL sources when the age of the SSE cotyledons was older than 6 weeks. The CSE frequencies from the SM source were significantly greater than that from the LL source when 8 and 10 week-old SSE cotyledons were used. The CSE frequencies from SM (81%, 82%) were still significantly higher than those from LL (41%, 40%)  at the 5th and 6th cycles respectively while the CSE efficiency only differed at the 4th cycle, with SM (7.1) being significantly more than from LL (5.2). These results also enrich the literature by specifying the age of somatic cotyledon suitable for further somatic embryogenic cycles; 0 to 8 weeks for SSE and 0 to 5 weeks for CSE, irrespective of the cultivar (TME 12 or Kibaha) or source (SM or LL). This study further concluded that cyclic embryos should be discarded after the 4th CSE cycle and fresh starting material should be used to restart the somatic embryogenic process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Respiratory Burst Enzymes and Oxidant-antioxidant Status in Nigerian Children with Sickle Cell Disease

Ayodele Adelakun, Olumide Ajani, Temitope Ogunleye, Elizabeth Disu, Ayokulehin Kosoko, Ganiyu Arinola

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 270-278
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/7411

Aim: To measure respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants, antioxidants and red cell indices in Nigerian children with sickle cell disease (HbSS) below five years of age and compared with apparently healthy children with normal haemoglobin (HbAA).

Method: A total of 45 subjects were recruited which included 23 children (age range 10 – 48 months) with HbSS and 22 children (age- and sex- matched) with HbAA. Blood samples were collected and red cell indices were determined using automated haematology analyser while serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GSH-Px) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were measured using ELISA kits. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione S transferase (GST), catalase (Cat), xanthine oxidase (XO) and glutathione (GSH) were measured with colorimetric techniques. MPO, SOD and Cat represented respiratory burst enzymes; MDA, H2O2 and XO were measured as pro-oxidants while GSH, GST and GSH-Px were the measured antioxidants.

Results: Mean concentration of malondialdehyde was significantly reduced (5.56±1.12nmol/L vs. 6.46±1.11nmol/L, P=.04) in HbSS children compared with HbAA children. Similarly, mean serum activity of myeloperoxidase in HbSS children was significantly reduced compared with HbAA children (66.12±13.34U/mL vs 77.02±13.54U/mL, P=.03). However, there were no significant differences in mean concentration of serum glutathione, hydrogen peroxide; serum activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase and glutathione S transferase in HbSS children compared with HbAA children

Conclusion: HbSS children in this population did not demonstrate raised oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Microbial Population of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Polluted Soil Amended with Chicken Droppings and Cow Dung

L. O. Okwute, U. J. J. Ijah

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 279-288
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/8695

Aim of Study: To assess changes in microbial population in palm oil mill effluent (POME) polluted soil amended with chicken droppings and cow dung.

Study Design: 32 plots measuring 4 m2 were mapped out in a randomized complete block design of five main plots with three replicates. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA using SPSS.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria: July 2011 to November 2011.

Methodology: Plots were polluted with palm oil mill effluent and subsequently remedied using varying amounts of chicken droppings and cow dung (5 kg, 10 kg and 15 kg). Microbiological analysis was carried out using Nutrient agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar for the enumeration of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (TAHB) and fungi (moulds and yeasts) respectively.

Results: Significant difference (P=0.05) in TAHB counts after 1 month and 2 months in all treatments with the exception of unamended polluted and unpolluted control soils. The counts however, increased after 2 months in all treatments with the exception of unamended polluted soil. The overall data suggest that amendment of the POME polluted soil enhanced microbial growth, particularly after 2 months meaning that bioremediation of the polluted soil can be achieved with the organic wastes within a short time.

Conclusion: Chicken droppings (at 10 kg and 15 kg/4m2 plot) and a combination of chicken droppings and cow dung (at 10 kg and 15 kg/4m2 plot) have the ability to significantly increase microbial populations in palm oil mill effluent (POME) polluted soil thereby stimulating the bioremediation of the polluted soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Physico-chemical Parameters and Phylogenetics Study of Human Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein (LRP)

Olugbenga Samson Onile

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 289-304
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/7176

In this study, 11members of human low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) sequences was retrieved from UniProtKB/ SWISS-PROT protein database and was analyzed for information about their structural, functional and phylogenetic features. This was achieved by using many established biocomputational tools which was available at their latest version. This study shows that LRP 12 and 3 are closely related with LRP8 being their nearest neighbor. In all, it was observed that there were very low possession of certain essential amino acid like glycine, proline and a very high aliphatic in all the LRP family. Considering the evolutionary history, functional domains, high aliphatic index, overall proportion of glycine and proline and the established role of one (LRP8) of this closely related LRP in diseases, it is thus predicted that the other closely related LRP3 and 12 molecules may be important candidate in investigating the aetiopathology of Myocardial infarction1diseases or other heart related disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Palm Oil Mill Effluent as Medium for Cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana

Charles Ogugua Nwuche, Doris Chidimma Ekpo, Chijioke Nwoye Eze, Hideki Aoyagi, James Chukwuma Ogbonna

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 305-316
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/6921

Aims: Palm oil mill effluent (POME) erodes the principal biophysical characteristic of both soil and water when discharged untreated but could be exploited as medium for microalgae cultivation due to its vast mineral contents.

Place and Duration of study: POME samples were collected from a local palm oil processing mill at Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. A part of the study was done at the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan while the rest at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka between March and September, 2012.

Methodology: Chlorella sorokiniana C212 was grown in several Batches (A-D) of POME supplemented with urea (60 mg/L) before subjecting to different sterilization protocols. Cultivation was conducted in shaker flasks at 150 rpm, 1 vvm, 3000 lux and pH 7.0±0.2.

Results: The filter sterilized Batch (B) promoted the highest (1070±30 mg/L) dry cell weight (DCW), lipid (156±12 mg/g-cell) and chlorophyll (1.59±0.11 mg/g-cell) contents while chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased by 45±08%. The autoclaved medium (Batch A) gave the least DCW (310±20 mg/L), lipid production (40±05 mg/g-cell) and chlorophyll content (0.58±0.02 mg/g-cell) while COD reduced by 20±04%. The highest COD decrease (70±05%) was achieved in the unsterilized Batch (D). Batch B was most positively affected by dilution because at 75% concentration, DCW increased to 1360±30 mg/L, lipid contents to 174±10 mg/g-cell, chlorophyll to 1.87±0.14 mg/g-cell the while COD declined by 63±03%.

Conclusions: POME has potential for use in microalgae cultivation with significant saving in treatment costs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Bacterial Population of Activated Sludge Process and Their Potentials in Pharmaceutical Effluent Treatment

Farrokhi Meherdad, Ghaemi Naser, Najafi Fazel, Naimi- Joubani Mohammad, Farmanbar Rabiollah, Roohbakhsh Joorshari Esmaeil

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 317-324
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/7913

Aims/objectives: The cognition about microbial population of activated sludge and their treatment potential will be very useful for industrial wastewater treatment plant operation.

Methodology: In this study microbial population of activated sludge process that was used for pharmaceutical wastewater has been investigated. Sampling was done from return sludge line and after serial dilution 1500 plates were studied. Methods for separating the bacteria from wastewater was pour plate method. All bacterial samples were purified using nutrient Agar and Macconkey Agar culture. Bacteria were separated from return sludge line and classified into 3 groups after biochemical tests and morphological analysis, These include positive bacteria of Bacillus genus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Flavobacterium.

Results: The biodegradability study on pharmaceutical effluent using identified cultures in laboratory scale showed that Bacillus spp. are the most efficient bacteria for organic matter degradation.

Conclusion: Results of this study showed that providing a microbial bank of these spp. can be useful for resistant operation of activated sludge.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Pharmacological Investigations of Using Leaf Callus Extracts of Canthium parviflorum Lam

Sirigiri Chandra Kala, Kokkanti Mallikarjuna, Challa Siva Reddy

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 325-338
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/7163

Aims: The Canthium parviflorum Lam. is an important medicinal plant extensively used in traditional oriental herbal medicines. It is important to screen for the novel biological activities and novel chemical constituents to further validate the use of this plant extract. This was mainly intended to screen in vitro pharmacological activities with callus extracts of Canthium parviflorum.  Experiments were designed according to the standard methods and processes.

Place and Duration of Study: The Pharmacology Department of Laila Research Centre in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India between September-October 2012.

Methodology: Callus was induced from leaf explants of Canthium parviflorum on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the compounds were extracted from dried callus using methanol solvent with Soxhlet apparatus.

Results: The Graph pad Prism Version‑5 software was used to analyze data in the form of figures. The callus extract was potentially inhibited the 5- Lipoxygenase inhibitory enzyme at significantly less IC50 value that was comparable with the standard drug inhibition. In addition, this extract was exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity with less LC50 value. However, this callus extract was shown very low potency in inhibiting the enzymes of acetyl cholinesterase, tyrosinase, alpha-glucosidase.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that callus extract of Canthium parviflorum shown more potent inhibition of 5-LOX and also remarkable cytotoxicity to be further screened for in vivo anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity.