Influence of Dominant Follicle and Corpus luteum on Recovery of Good Quality Oocytes for In vitro Embryo Production in Cattle
The quality of oocytes is more critical for the success of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP) than the conditions of in vitro culture of these structures. Despite knowledge about bovine follicular development, especially gonadotropin-dependent phase, be considerably wide, knowledge about effects of the estrous cycle phase, follicular or luteal, on recovery of oocytes may strongly contribute to improve IVP efficiency. Previous efforts to find the proper cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) in vitro maturation conditions did not improve this technique at level of the in vivo embryo production. In physiological conditions the oocyte to be fertilized is donated by healthy follicles during a specific stage of the estrous cycle. However, COCs collected for IVP are obtained from follicles disregarding the follicular phase; consequently, they may have been subjected to different levels of estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH. Plasma progesterone affects oocyte quality probably because it allows the follicle is exposed for a long period to low amplitude LH pulses, resulting in good quality oocyte. Besides, the presence of a functional corpus luteum (CL) in the ovary may interfere with the amount and quality of oocytes, CL is related to a high vascularization of the ovary which can propitiate an optimal hormonal and nutritional environment for developing follicles. Moreover, the developmental ability of oocytes from small follicles can be influenced by a presence of dominant follicle. Therefore, the ovarian condition of regularly cyclic females needs to be a concern in collection of oocytes for commercial IVP.
Aim: In the present work, we have studied the effect of L ascorbic acid (LAA) on the regeneration of plants from different families cultured in vitro.
Study Design: Plants belonging to three different families are cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with and without 1µg/ml L ascorbic acid (LAA), in the absence of any other growth regulators. Thus the study brings out the effect of LAA on plant regeneration. In addition regeneration capacity of LAA involving other growth regulators was also studied.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Mount Carmel College, Bangalore, India, between August 2012-August 2013.
Methodology: The work was conducted on Centella asiatica, Santalum album, and Trigonella foenumgraecum.C. asiatica and T. foenumgraecum are herbaceous whereas S. album is a tropical woody plant. Stem explants of C. asiatica and S. album and the seed explants of T. foenumgraecum were used for the in vitro culture and chlorophyll content in thus obtained leaflets was measured. Further, growth related parameters such as shoot/root length, leaf areas were measured.
Results: LAA aided the shoot regeneration in all the three plants cultured in vitro. In C. asiatica and T. foenumgraecum it resulted in the regeneration of plantlets with shoots and roots, however in the case of S. album only shoot regeneration occurred. Chlorophyll content was found to be higher in the in vitro plants grown in the presence of LAA. Shoot/root lengths and area of leaves were more in LAA grown plants as compared to control plants.
Conclusion:In vitro culture of stem explants of C. asiatica and seed explants of T. foenumgraecum revealed that supplementing LAA aided in the whole plant regeneration, whereas in the case of S. album supplementing LAA only resulted in the shoot regeneration, but no root formation. Shoot/root lengths, area of leaves and chlorophyll content was found to be higher in the in vitro grown plants with LAA as compared to those grown without LAA, suggesting that LAA is mitigating the function of both auxin and cytokinin. Enhanced chlorophyll production in in-vitro grown plants with LAA is suggestive of involvement of LAA in chlorophyll biosynthesis/protection from degradation and hence the regeneration. Through our results, we show that using LAA in the culture medium can result in regeneration of whole plants. The effect was observed in plants belonging to different families indicating LAA could be used as a general growth enhancer and adding LAA would be beneficial in the regeneration of whole plants.
Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dioclea reflexa Hook F Seed on some Haematological and Kidney Function Parameters in Rats following Single or Repeated Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication
Objective: To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Dioclea reflexa Hook F seed on male rats following single (acute) or repeated (chronic) carbon tetrachloride intoxication.
Methods: Male albino rats were divided into groups of six each consisting of plant extract only, plant extract + carbon tetrachloride, solvent only, solvent + carbon tetrachloride, vitamin E only, vitamin E + carbon tetrachloride and untreated control. The rats in the acute experiment received the extract (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection for two days, and 1 hour after administration of CCl4 (0.6ml/kg body weight) on the third day, while those in the chronic experimental model received 2.5mg/kg for 10 consecutive days with 72 hourly administration of CCl4 at 0.3ml/kg.
Results: In the acute model, the level of total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in D. reflexa seed extract pre-treated rats compared to the CCl4 control, while in the chronic model, the level of packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin were significantly (P<0.05) boosted in extract treated group compared to the CCl4 control group with concomitant reduction in the levels of bilirubin.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the seed of D. reflexa possess capacity to boost haematological parameters and protect the kidney against acute and chronic toxicological challenges.
Low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF-EMFs) which can be generated from homes and workplaces appliances can lead to alteration in oncogenes causing cancer diseases such as leukemia, nervous system tumors, lymphoma and breast cancer. To investigate the effect of LF-EMFs on c-myc oncogene expression level, primary cell culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to AC (50 Hz) electromagnetic flux density: 0.37mT, 0.82mT, 1.22mT, 1.68mT, 2.1mT, 2.47mT, 2.85mT, 3.33mT, 3.72mT, 3.92mT, 4.32mT and 4.67mT using exposure unit. After four days of exposure, when initial changes in cell viability, morphology and count between exposed and unexposed cells were noted, total RNA was extracted to evaluate the expression level of c-myc oncogene by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that c-myc oncogene expression level began to increase gradually from value 1.69% at 0.82mT reaching to the maximum expression level value 4.65% at 4.67mT. This result refers to an increasing in LF-EMFs exposure offset by an increasing in c-myc oncogene expression level, affecting different cellular functions. This study indicates that LF-EMF is environmental pollution effects on the expression level of oncogenes which increase the risk of human cancer diseases.
Some Biochemical Effects of Methanolic Extract of Afzelia africana Seed in Rats Following Single or Repeated Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication
Aim: To establish the in vivo effects of the methanolic extract of Afzelia africana seed on CCl4- induced organ damage on some biochemical parameters.
Methods: The rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each. In the single administration experiment, rats were intraperitoneally pre-treated with the extract (10mg/kg) for two days before CCl4 intoxication at 0.6ml/kg. In the repeated intoxication experiment, rats were administered the extract (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection for 10 consecutive days, and CCl4 (0.6ml/kg) 72 hourly intervals for 10 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin (conjugated and total) were analyzed for hepatoprotective effect, while urea and creatinine were used to evaluate kidney function. Results: Data obtained showed significant reduction (P=.05) in the activities of ALT and AST, as well as in levels of bilirubin, urea and creatinine in the Afzelia africana extract-treated rats compared to the CCl4 control.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the seeds of A. africana contain constituents that could protect the kidney and liver and ameliorate them from both acute and chronic injuries.
Biological nitrification is the most commonly used process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. Nitrification is carried out in two steps. First ammonia is converted to nitrite by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the second step nitrite oxidizing bacteria convert nitrite to nitrate. The study involves the effect of nutrients (both organic and inorganic components) on biological nitrification and the optimum concentrations of di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sucrose and ferric chloride were observed over ammonium ion removal. The effect of dissolved oxygen also was studied and maximum percentage removal of ammonium ion was found to be 89.2%.
Lipid Profile, Haemoglobin Level and Antioxidant Effect of Pre-treatment with Methanolic Extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum. & Thonn. Leafagainst Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Injuries to Liver, Kidney and Heart of Rats
Aim: To evaluate the protective and ameliorative roles of methanolic extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus,Schum. & Thonn. leaf against acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and Injuries to Liver, Kidney and Heart in Rats.
Methods: To study the protective effects of the extract against oxidative stress, the rats were pre-treated with the extract (5mg/kg) for three days before intoxication with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at 0.6ml/kg as a 33% solution in corn oil, with Vitamin E (50mg/kg) as an antioxidant control.
Results: Administration of the extract significantly (P=.05) prevented or reversed the CCl4 -induced elevation in the levels of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), bilirubin, malondialdehyde, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol with boosting of the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, HDL-cholesterol, packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin concentration.
Conclusion: These results suggest that in addition to its hypolipidemic effect, methanolic extract of B. coccineus leaf can be used to protect and manage the liver and kidney against oxidative stress related injuries.
Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Quality in Plateau State, Nigeria
Background: Documented evidence confirmed that some infectious diseases are transmitted primarily through water contaminated with human and animal faeces. Developing countries suffer from more serious outbreaks of water borne diseases than other parts of the world. Some human pathogens associated with serious risk of diseases when consumed in contaminated water include; Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Rota virus, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis E virus and Entamoeba histolytica among others.
Aim: This study was carried out to assess the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources in Plateau state, since shortage/absence of potable water, has forced inhabitants to depend on stream, well and tap water as source of drinking water.
Methodology: In the present study, ten (10) samples including four (4) streams, three (3) tap and 3 well drinking water samples were analyzed in triplicates for the presence of bacterial indicators of water quality. Bacteriological Analysis was done using; The Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliforms per 100millilitres of the water samples. This was determined by the multiple tube fermentation technique. The presumptive coliform test procedure, Confirmatory Test for Faecal Coliform was also performed.
Results: All the water samples from the study area were contaminated, as coliform detected, exceeded the permissible limit recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) standard for drinking water.
Conclusion: The findings therefore shows that all the water sources are not fit for human consumption and are hazardous to health, due to abnormal numbers of coliform count above the standard recommended by WHO. Hence there is a need for strict and routine monitoring of all the water sources in the study area with the view of raising their standards. In addition people should boil their water before consumption especially those using stream as their source of drinking water. Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities’ particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women at all governmental levels. Potable water should be provided for all communities.