Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Multiple Shoot Induction and Plantlet Regeneration from Cotyledonary Explants of Sapindus emarginatus Vahl (Soapnut)

Srinivas. D, Venkateshwarlu. M, Jagan Mohan Reddy. K, Ugandhar. T

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/5538

Direct Multiple Shoot Induction and Plantlet Regeneration from Cotyledonary Explants of Sapindus emarginatus Vahl (Soapnut)

Multiple shoot induction in S. emarginatus has been achieved by two methods: (1) Direct germination of S. emarginatus in vitro cotyledon explants in BAP/Kn/TDZ (1.0-3.0 mg/L) supplemented MS medium and (2) in plant treatment with BAP/Kn/TDZ (3.0 mg/ L) in combination of 1AA (0.5 mg/L) of the cotyledon explants of plants and maintained under sterile conditions. While the former method resulted in as many as (7.5±8.6 shoot buds) from the cotyledonary explants within four weeks, the latter yielded on average approximately 8 shoot buds from each treated node in eight weeks. The cytokinin treatment in plant consisted of placing sterile filter paper moistened with sterile distilled water over the node and adding different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine. The best results for shoot bud regeneration were obtained with cotyledons, when cultured in the presence of (0.5 mg/L) IAA in combination with (3.0 mg/L). The shoots elongated and rooted directly in vermiculite after a pulse treatment with IBA (2.5 mg/L) for 15 min. Fungus growth, a serious problem in S. emarginatus tissue culture, was controlled using a fungicide, Bavistin, along with elimination of organic nutrients from the growth medium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Starch and Cyanide Contents of Different Species of Fresh Cassava Tuber in Abia State, Nigeria

O. R. Ezeigbo, C. F. Ukpabi, C. A. Ike-Amadi, M. U. Ekaiko

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/15297

This investigation aimed at determining the cyanide and starch contents of different species of cassava grown in Abia State. Samples of cassava tubers were purchased from the local market and identified by a taxonomist from the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State. In this study, the cyanide levels obtained were less than 100 mg/kg for both sweet and bitter cassava. The lower concentration of cyanide obtained from this survey, could have been influenced by the season of harvest (rainy season) in Nigeria. Of the six species analyzed, “0581” recorded the highest in cyanide content with 62.57 ± 0.10 mg/kg, followed by “30211” with 59.55 ± 0.19 mg/kg. Sweet cassava (0505) recorded the least with 36.65 ± 0.16 mg/kg cyanide. On the starch content, 21.70 ± 0.10% was obtained from “30572”, followed by “8083” with 20.62 ± 0.11% and “30211” had the least starch content with 17.48 ± 0.02%. Both Starch (%) and HCN (mg/kg) are statistically significant (p-value < 0.001) in the means for the various species of cassava under study. However, from the posthoc test, there is no significant difference between species 30211 and 0581. The other species are significantly different at 5% level. However, all the species of cassava tested had cyanide above the recommended level (10 mg/kg). Consumption of these cassava species unprocessed/inadequately processed would lead to serious health challenges and therefore, efforts are required to reduce cyanide content at least to the recommended level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic/Antibacterial activity of Vitex negundo, Duranta repens, Acorus calamus and Piper nigrum

Burhan M. Padder, Shagufta Yasmeen, Mudasar Ganaie

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/14534

Antibiotic/Antibacterial activity of Vitex negundo, Duranta repens, Acorus calamus and Piper nigrum

Plants produce a diverse nature of secondary metabolites having different biological activity. Some of these chemicals exhibit antimicrobial activity. In the present study the plant extracts of Vitex negundo, Duranta repens, Acorus calamus and Piper nigrum were tested individually as well as synergistically for antibiotic/ antibacterial activities. It was found that the plant extract of V. negundo was most effective against both S. mutans MTCC 890(MIC value 0.37) and P. aeruginosa MTCC 0741 (MIC value 0.75) than other three extracts of D. repens, P. nigrum, A. calamus whereas the plant extract of P. nigrum was least effective against both S. mutans MTCC 890(MIC value 3.12) and P. aeruginosa MTCC 0741(MIC value 6.25).

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from the Errachidia Province, Morocco

Btissam Ben Messaoud, Imane Aboumerieme, Laila Nassiri, Elmostafa El Fahime, Jamal Ibijbijen

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 23-34
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/14687

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from the Errachidia Province, Morocco

Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically and genotypically bacterial isolated from the soils of the Errachidia province in order to select the ones having the potential to solubilize the inorganic phosphate.

Study Design: Rhizosphere soil samples for different legumes in sixteen sites from Errachidia province were collected for the assessment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology (Soil & Environment Microbiology Unit) Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University and Technical Support Unit for Scientific Research, CNRST in Rabat; between September 2012 and January 2013.

Methodology: The samples were collected from 16 different sites belonging to Errachidia province in order to select bacterial strains able to solubilize inorganic phosphate. Morphological, cultural and phenotypic parameters of the isolated strains were evaluated. Phenotypic characteristics include the use of carbohydrates, tolerance to temperature, salt and pH. The genotypic diversity between the selected isolates was investigated throught 16S rDNA gene sequencing.

Results: 19,4% from the 62strains isolated were selected as PSBs; They showed phenotypic heterogeneity confirmed by the genetic one. Their effectiveness on the solid growth medium was greater which was confirmed by the significant index of solubilization of each strain. Although that on the broth medium the concentration of the solubilized phosphorus differs from one strain to another, a negative correlation moderately strong between the final pH of the growth medium and the concentration of the solubilized phosphorus was deduced. Also a lack of correlation between the index of solubilization and concentration was concluded (r = -0.08).

Conclusion: The importance of the phosphorus soluble forms for the agricultural production and taking in consideration the environmental concerns and sustainable developments compromise the use of cheapest and natural techniques to protect the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced in vitro Seedling Recovery in Nothapodytes nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly

Tasiu Isah, Abdul Mujib

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/15368

Enhanced in vitro Seedling Recovery in Nothapodytes nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly

Nothapodytes nimmoniana is an endangered medicinal tree and regarded most convenient natural source for large scale isolation of anticancer alkaloid camptothecin. In order to meet pharmaceutical market demand for camptothecin and conserve natural population of the species, in vitro culture techniques can be employed for mass propagation and production of the alkaloid. Seed germination is one of the difficult challenges in the establishment of the aseptic in vitro cultures. Pre-germination treatments of soaking in water, GA3 solution and aseptic excision of the embryo axis were employed to enhance seed germination and seedling recovery respectively for further in vitro studies. Seed soaking in water or GA3 solution for 24 hours enhanced the germination capacity with better response obtained when seeds were soaked in GA3 (2.6 µM) solution and germinated on half strength MS medium supplemented with the GA3. Removal of the outer, inner seed coat and inoculation of the embryo axis on medium amended with or without GA3 reduced seedling recovery time to 3-4 weeks. Seedlings obtained on medium fortified with GA3 showed vigorous growth with complete plantlet development than on PGR-free medium. The strategy can be employed to reduce seedling recovery time to within 3-4 weeks compared to 7-10 weeks required for germinating the seeds in vitro.