Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of AtSPS on the Growth and Development of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress

Bao-Zhen Zhao, Yang Yu, Zhi Yang, Qi Ding, Na Cui

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430147

Aims: SPS (Sucrose phosphate synthase) participates in plant growth and yield formation, and plays an important role in plant stress resistance. This study used T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSPS in Arabidopsis as test material. The growth indexes and soluble sugar contents of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress, osmotic stress and low temperature stress were determined, which laid the foundation for further understanding the mechanism of SPS in plant growth and development and abiotic stress resistance.

Study Design: In order to analyze the mechanism of SPS in plant growth and development and abiotic stress resistance, this study used T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSPS in Arabidopsis as test material. The growth indexes and soluble sugar contents of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress, osmotic stress and low temperature stress were determined.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Biological Science and Technology, between December 2020 and May 2021.

Methodology: The contents of soluble sugar in tomato fruits were measured with HPLC (High

performance liquid chromatography). The growth indexes were determined.

Results: The results showed that AtSPS played positive regulation roles in seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, under abiotic stress conditions, AtSPS mutant increased the contents of soluble sugar, suggesting that Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings might improve resistance through osmotic regulating substances.

Conclusion: AtSPS played positive regulation roles in seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis. Meanwhile, AtSPS mutant increased the contents of soluble sugar to increase resistance of Arabidopsis under abiotic stresses, and the growth and development were blocked, suggesting that SPS was negative regulatory element to resist abiotic stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Modelling and in-silico characterization of a Novel Thermophilic β-amylase from Clostridium thermosulfuregenes

Shafiqa Nayel, Mohd Shahir Shamsir, Farid Ahmad Danishfar

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430144

β-amylase is a hydrolytic enzyme that is involved in breaking down starch and producing energy. Since the discovery of β-amylase, it has been applied in various applications especially in the food industry. In this study, a novel β-amylase from Clostridium thermosuluregen, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments its extracellular emulsion to ethanol at 62 ℃ was modelled and studied using bioinformatics tools and compared with B. cereus β-amylases that functions at mesophilic conditions. The results showed that the overall structural conformations, secondary structures, and important residues involved in active and binding sites were identified in both proteins. The results revealed that the modelled β-amylase of C. thermosulfuregen is very similar with respect to the global conformation, location of active and binding sites. Both proteins showed identical structural domains with the thermophilic variant possessing a high percentage of hydrophobic amino acid residues, polar amino acid residues, and differences in secondary composition such as loops and beta sheets as the potential evolutionary thermal adaptations that make it stable enzyme that functions up to 70 ℃. The results suggest that the thermal stability are not dependent on one single unique mechanism and may use one or a combination of the mechanisms to sustain its structural conformation at a higher operating temperature. Overall, considering the common properties of this modelled protein with the β-amylase of B. cereus, it can be assumed that if the β-amylase of C. thermosulfuregen were expressed in-vitro, it would produce a stable protein that possesses the hydrolysis function for C. thermosulfuregen to break down the starch and sugar formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Transcriptional Profile of NOS2 and IFN-γ Genes in River Buffalo with Endometritis

Othman E. Othman, Noha M. Osman, Nadia A. Abo El-Maaty, Eman R. Mahfouz

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430146

Background and Aim: Uterine lumen contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in buffalo after parturition. Nearly one-third of these infected animals develop endometritis which leads to reduced fertility. The present study aimed to evaluate the expressions of IFN-γ and NOS2 genes in uterine tissue of buffaloes with endometritis and comparing them with those in healthy animals using RT-qPCR

Materials and Methods: Uterine samples were collected from 50 apparently healthy and 50 clinically infected buffaloes. RNA was extracted from the collected buffalo's uteri and cDNA was synthesized from extracted RNA. Quantitative Real Time PCR technique was performed using this synthesized cDNA.

Results: Apparent up-regulation of both genes mRNA expression was recorded in endometritis-infected animals with 8.3-folds for IFN-γ and 9.99-folds for NOS2 (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The upregulation of IFN-γ and NOS2 expression in the uterine tissue of endometritis-infected buffaloes can be used as a scale for measuring the efficiency of drugs used for endometritis treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-bacterial Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Onion, Garlic and Cinnamon on Xanthomonas Species

Amir Hussain, Tahir Naqqash, Kashif Aslam, Syed Bilal Hussain, Shahid Masood Shah, Ghulam Shabir

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430148

Onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) are edible herbs but they contain many chemicals which can be used as medicine. These herbs also contain many antibiotic molecules that are capable to inhibit or reduce growth of many types of microbes including bacteria. Due to the development of resistance of bacteria against synthetic antibiotic now there is a need to have natural antibiotic which must be harmless, cheap and easily available. To know the effectiveness of garlic, onion, and cinnamon on disease causing bacteria such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, extracts of each sample was made in water and ethanol. Antibacterial potential of plant extracts was observed at two different stages: at the time of inoculation and after growth of pathogen on media. Results showed extracts applied on all the bacteria before growth inhibited maximum bacterial growth as compared to applied after growth. Moreover, cinnamon extract in ethanol effectively control bacterial growth than onion and garlic extracts. Maximum inhibition zone was shown by ethanolic extract of cinnamon before growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (7.333 mm), Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (7.83 mm) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (5.1 mm). After 24 hours, maximum growth of Xanthomonas oryzae and Xanthomonas axonopodis was inhibited by ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (2.82 and 3.35 mm, respectively) while Xanthomonas campestris was inhibited by ethanolic extract of onion (6.55 mm). Extract diluted from 66mg/ml to 0.01mg/ml showed different minimum inhibitory concentration against pathogens. As concentration decreases inhibition of bacteria also decreases. Ethanolic extracts of cinnamon showed maximum MIC against Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (3.5 mm to 1.5 mm) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (5 mm to 2 mm) while for Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ethanolic extract of garlic (3 mm to 1 mm) was effective ranging between 66mg/ml to 33 mg/ml. This study highlighted that natural products possess ability to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth and would also be helpful in medicinal field for further study.

Open Access Review Article

Callus Culture as an Alternative Source of Secondary Metabolites in Curtailing Malaria Epidemic

Daniel Thakuma Tizhe, Gali Adamu Ishaku, Afiniki Yohanna, Dashe Dentsen Fortune, Aisha Salihu Jibrin

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430145

Malaria remains a threat to public healthcare system. In 2018, more than 200 million people were exposed to this disease globally. There have been reports of drug-resistance in the recommended therapy in some endemic regions. This called for relentless efforts in the search for potential antimalarial compounds.

An in vitro culture technique has emerged as a promising option for sustainable and industrial propagation of plant bioactive compounds with wide range of medicinal properties. The demand for these invaluable metabolites is witnessing a continuous increase as a folk medicine, hence, endangering their existence in natural habitats. Besides its use in natural form, the nature’s gift to humans seems to be restricted and limited by environmental conditions. An in vitro culture approach remains the most viable and sustainable alternative for the endangered plant species. Here, we present some plant species reported to have potential antimalarial activities and recommend further study through callus culture induction against malaria.