Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Mutagenic Effects of Monosodium Glutamate Using Allium cepa and Antimutagenic Action of Origanum majorana L. and Ruta chalepensis Medical Plants

Hoda A. Khatab, Nagat S. Elhaddad

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/17695

At the present study, Allium cepa root tips were collected during 2,6 and 24 hrs after treated with selected concentrations (1.0,3.0,5.0 and 7.0 g/L) of Mono-Sodium Glutamate (MSG) that used as flavour enhancer in foods. MSG induced mitodepression chromosomal aberrations such as bridges, fragments, disturbance, sticky chromosomes and other morphological abnormalities like enlargement cells. In this study we amid to determine the inhibitory effect of oil extract (1.25 µl/ml) from two medical plant species Origanium majorana L. and Ruta chalepensis on this food additive. Our results demonstrated that these extracts have the potency to suppress MSG by increasing of mitotic index and reduction of the chromosomal aberration and thus could be a promising antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gamma Radiation: Physical Elicitor for In vitro Culture Techniques of Cajanus cajan

Darakhshanda Neelam, Tanveera Tabasum, S. A. Husain, Mahmooduzaffar ., Shahnaz Subhan

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/14073

Gamma rays are very important in mutation breeding and in in vitro mutagenesis in order to develop required features of plants and increase the genetic variability. Cajanus cajan when subjected to absorbed doses 30 Gy, 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy showed a direct co-relation between callus induction, regeneracy frequency and absorbed doses of gamma radiation as compared to control. Gamma irradiation resulted in the induction of autonomous growth in callus, which led to the formation of callus tumors resembling the shape of crown gall tumors. Gamma irradiation in the present study proved to be an important tool in increasing the breeding efficiency, and regeneration frequency, especially that of the recalcitrant varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inoculum Sizes of Locally Isolated Phototrophic Bacterium on the Utilization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Sujjat Al Azad, Sitti Raehanah Muhd. Shaleh

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/17827

Aims: To produce Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain UMSPSB3 biomass with the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from palm oil mill effluent.

Study Design: Locally isolated phototrophic bacterium with different inoculum levels were used in Palm Oil Mill effluent (POME). Collected POME was characterized before used as substrate. Inoculum of bacterium was grown in synthetic media and 48 hours inoculum was used to utilize the substrate. 

Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnological laboratory, Borneo Marine Research Institute, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, between February 2014 to April 2014.

Methodology: Growth characteristics of bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain UMSPSB3 was monitored at different light intensities. Later phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain UMSPSB3 was grown in settled non-sterilized Palm Oil Mill effluent (POME). The growth characteristics of bacterium in term of dry cell weight and total carotenoids production, and reduction of COD were compared using 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v) levels of inoculum developed in synthetic 112 media.

Results: The optimum light intensity for the growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain UMSPSB3 was 2.5 klux. The highest bacterial biomass (Xmax) of 6.5 g/L (dry weight) and 72% reduction of COD were obtained after 96-h culture with 20% (v/v) inoculum level. The reduction of COD (%) and cell yield (Yx/y, g cell/g COD) in POME were 82% and 0.98 respectively, after 96-h culture with 30% (v/v) inoculum. Production of carotenoids was comparatively low in bacterium using POME as substrate. Inoculum levels of 20-30% (v/v) developed in synthetic 112 media supported the growth of phototrophic bacterium in settled POME, but higher level of inoculum was required for faster removal COD from effluent. A 10% (v/v) level of inoculum in POME did not support the isolate to grow.

Conclusion: Production of bacterial biomass with bioremediation of effluent could be achieved using POME as substrate with locally isolated Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proteomic Quantitative UV Absorption Spectrum Analysis of Effect of Heat Stress on Protein Extract from Cowpea Seed (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp)

Amos Onasanya, O. B. Adewale, T. O. Obafemi, A. A. Ojo, O. A. Olaoye, A. Afolabi, J. A. Falode

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18429

Aim: Proteomic quantitative UV absorption spectrum analysis was used to study the effect of heat stress on protein extract from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).

Study Design: Protein extracts were obtained from 9 cowpea accessions obtained from GeneBank of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in January 2014. Each protein extract was divided into four batches out of which three batches were subjected to different temperature treatments and incubation at 37°C, 60°C and 100°C for 1 hour and the remaining one batch served as control. Protein content in each control protein extract and 37°C, 60°C and 100°C treated protein extracts from each of the 9 cowpea samples were determined at 280 nm using bovine serum albumin standard curve.

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry Unit, Department of Chemical Sciences, Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Nigeria between January 2014 and June 2014.

Methodology: A200-A960 UV wavelengths absorption spectrum analysis was carried out on control protein extract and 37°C, 60°C and 100°C treated protein extracts respectively from each of the 9 cowpea samples. In order to establish the relationship between protein extracts (control) and protein extracts heat treated (37°C, 60°C, and 100°C), cluster analysis of optical density (OD) data was carried out using numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system.

Results: The protein content (control) in Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp was between 8.4 and 10.8 mg/ml (10.5-13.5%) in seed, while protein content (heat treated) in Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp was between 8.9 and 9.5 mg/ml (11.2-11.9%), 8.7-9.5 mg/ml (10.9-11.9%), 9.0 and 11.8 mg/ml (11.3-14.7 %) in  heat treatments of 37°C, 60°C, and 100°C respectively. The protein UV absorption spectra of control protein extract and 37°C, 60°C and 100°C treated protein extracts from each cowpea accession were generally different due to differential UV wavelength protein absorption. Cluster analysis of absorbance spectra optical density values revealed five clusters (cluster 1, cluster 2, cluster 3, cluster 4, and cluster 5) among control protein extracts and protein extracts heated at 37°C, 60°C, and 100°C. Cluster1 was made up of protein extracts heated at 37°C and 60°C, while cluster2 and cluster3 constituted closely related protein extracts heated at 37°C and 100°C respectively. Cluster4 was typical of control protein extracts, while cluster5 was made up of distinct protein extracts heated at 100°C.

Conclusion: Heating protein extracts at 37°C, 60°C, and 100ºC has altered proteomic diversity in different cowpea accessions and this could make protein extraction more difficult with implications on protein properties.

Open Access Review Article

Gradual Changes in Genetic Based Developments for Phylogenetic Trends in Picornaviruses

I. Maham, A. Sikander

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/17919

On the basis of the several techniques, the new groups and the strains within the Picornaviruses were classified. New groups like human pathogen EV22 (Echovirus 22) was discovered that was found to be highly different from other Picornaviruses to date. The biological properties of Picornaviruses were studied and on the basis of biological properties the viruses were classified into similar groups. The protein composition is rare because most of the copies out of 3 would not be processed to VP2 and VP4. EV23 was said to be similar to EV22 in various sections of genome. The Picornavirus classification is done hierarchically of a family using the quantitative approach with the help of PEDs (pairwise evolutionary distances). Comparison of the GENETIC classification with expert-based Picornavirus taxonomy and the differences in the frameworks were demonstrated, related to the virus groups and genetic diversity that show the classification content and structure. In the GENETIC classification, human Rhinovirus A, human Rhinovirus C and genus Aphthovirus were separated.