Open Access Original Research Article

Heterobeltiosis in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) F1 Diallel Crosses under Contrasting Soil-N Conditions

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, R. Shabana, M. M. Abd El-Aleem, Zainab A. El-Rashidy

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/21916

Breeding wheat cultivars with improved adaptation to low soil-N, has gained importance worldwide in order to decrease N fertilizer consumption and overcome the ecological and economic problems of the misuse of this fertilizer. Identification of wheat crosses that show useful heterosis (heterobeltiosis) is an important issue in breeding programs. The main objective of the present investigation was to estimate heterobeltiosis for nitrogen use efficiency and other studied traits of F1 diallel crosses among six wheat parents in order to identify the superior ones for future use in breeding programs. Genetic materials were evaluated at two seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009) in a split-plot design with randomized complete block arrangement, using three replications. Main plots were assigned to N levels (0 and 75 kg N/fed), while sub plots were devoted to genotypes. Data combined across the two seasons were presented. In general, low N caused a significant reduction in 9 out of 14 studied traits. These reductions were relatively high in magnitude for number of spikes/ plant (SPP) for parents (23.65%) and F1's (23.99%). On the contrary, low–N caused increases in the averages of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by 89.5 and 97.60% for parents and F1's, respectively. Averages of heterobeltiosis for all studied characters were either non-significant or significant but non favorable, except for plant height under both low and high N, NUPE under high N and GPS under low N. However, some crosses for each trait showed significant and favorable heterobeltiosis. Under low–N, the highest favorable and significant heterobeltiosis estimate was shown by L27 x Gem 7 for GYPP (14.94%), NUTE (44.81%) and GPS (25.82%), L25 x L26 for 100 GW (13.87%), L 25 x L 27 for SPP (12.53%), L 27 x Gem 9 for GPS (26.19%) and Gem 7 x Gem 9 for BYPP (28.99%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Methaemoglobin and Carboxyhaemoglobin Levels among Pregnant Women Infected with Hepatitis B Virus

Adedeji David Atere, Franklin Kayode Ayenogun, Bolaji David Akinbo, Adaobi Mary-Joy Okafor, Kelvin Ifeanyichukwu Egbuchulem

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/21880

Aims: The goal of this research is to determine plasma levels of MetHb and COHb in pregnant women with hepatitis B, which might enhance oxidative stress and hypoxemic condition of this state if it is not ameliorated on time.

Study Design: Prospective case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Antenatal clinic at Primary Health Centres, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria between February, 2015 and August, 2015.

Methodology: Blood levels of MetHb, COHb and bilirubin were determined in ninety four (94) participants (aged 18-40 years), divided into three groups: 33 pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus, 30 apparently healthy pregnant women and 31 age matched non pregnant women apparently healthy controls. Blood levels of MetHb, COHb and bilirubin were determined using standard spectrophotometric method.

Results: There was progressive increase and decrease in mean blood levels of (TBil, and MetHb) and mean blood levels of COHb respectively from controls through pregnant subjects with HBV. PCV and DBil had no specific pattern of differences across the groups.

Conclusion: This study showed a slight increase in blood levels of MetHb in pregnant women with hepatitis B and apparently healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, which might enhance oxidative stress and hypoxemic condition of this state. It would also be helpful to incorporate MetHb screening as routine tests for better management of pregnant women especially with HBV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization and Potential of Fungal Species Associated with Cassava Waste

Aniekpeno Isaac Elijah, Naomi Udo Asamudo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/16559

Aims: Efficient utilization of cassava waste for value addition depends largely on proper understanding of its true microbial diversity. The aim of this study was to characterize using molecular methods, fungal species associated with cassava waste and to highlight their industrial potential. 

Study Design: Cassava peel (CP) waste from CP waste dumpsites and cassava waste water from cassava wastewater discharge outlets were collected from major cassava processing centres in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnology Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; between June 2011 and March 2012.

Methodology: Two molecular methods namely, total fungal community DNA and isolates DNA sequence analysis were employed to characterize and identify the fungal species. Total fungal community DNA was extracted directly from CP waste and cassava wastewater, using the Soil DNA isolation kit (Norgen, Canada), while total genomic DNA was extracted from fungal isolates, using the same kit. The fungal ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer) gene sequence of total fungal community and genomic DNA was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using ITS2 primers. Total fungal community DNA amplicons were spliced into PCR-TRAP Cloning Vector, used to transform competent cells of Escherichia coli and sequenced. Sequences were identified by aligning with sequences in the GenBank.

Results: Results showed that 17 fungal species including Eurotiomycetes – Eurotiales (6 species), Mucormycotina – Mucorales (1 species), Sordariomycetes - Hypocreales (1 species), Saccharomycetes Saccharomycetales (8 species), and unidentified fungi (1 species) were present in cassava peel (CP). The dominant species was Aspergillus niger (15.2%). However, cassava wastewater had 27 fungal species including Eurotiomycetes – Eurotiales (2 species), Saccharomycetes Saccharomycetales (24 species) Tremellomycetes-Tremellales (1 species); the dominant species being Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida krusei each with 8.7% relative abundance.

Conclusion: This study shows that cassava waste, on account of its rich fungal diversity, is an important microbial resource.

Open Access Original Research Article

Probiotic Properties and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacillus spp. Isolated from Two Types of Fermented Locust Bean (iru)

O. M. David, J. L. Olagunju, A. A. Adebayo, T. T. Oluwaniyi, M. O. Olajide

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/17698

Bacillus spp. associated with two types of fermented African locust beans iru woro and iru pete were isolated and screened for probiotic potentials using standard microbiological techniques. The total bacterial counts for iru woro (pH 8.4) and iru pete (with pH 8.1) were 6.4314 and 6.4771 log10CFU/g respectively. In the two samples, the load of aerobic sporeformers were 6.2068 and 6.2553 log10CFU/g. In the samples Bacillus subtilis had the highest occurrence (44%), followed by B. lichenliformis (28%) and B. megaterium (24%) while B. coagulans had the least (4%). Only 28% of Bacillus isolates produced caseinase, while 28% produced haemolysin. Majority of these isolates showed tolerance to salt at concentrations less than 5% and also grew fairly at pH tending to neutral. Bacillus subtilis P14, Bacillus lichenliformis P12 and Bacillus megaterium P6 grew at 3.0% bile. Percentage hydophobicity, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation of the isolates ranged from -49.00 to 65.00%, -53.00 to 84.00% and -69.44 to 36.08% respectively. High level of antibiotic resistance (especially to first line antibiotics) was recorded among isolates. Most of the Bacillus species isolated from the iru samples had very poor probiotic properties. Molecular and in vitro probiotic properties of promising candidates are still open to investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiesel Fuel Production from Palm, Sunflower Waste Cooking Oil and Fish Byproduct Waste as Renewable Energy and Environmental Recycling Process

A. B. M. Sharif Hossain, Mohammed Saad AlEissa

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22338

Significant of the Study: Biomass is renewable, organic, plant and animal derived source of biomaterial that can be converted into different forms of biofuel, bioplastic, bio-solvent, and bioenergy using different biotechnological procedures. Biomass derived bio-fuel is biodegradable, nontoxic, sustainable and substitute for fossil fuel as well as capable to reduce greenhouse gas emission. It is renewable and outstanding energy resource for the creation of steam and electricity, transportation fuel, manufacturing industries. Biomass derived from animal and plants like, fruits, vegetable, crops, fish, chicken and other animal byproducts or waste biomass which can be used for bioenergy production like biofuel and nano-catalyst for biofuel.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare and investigate the suitable biodiesel properties produced from waste fish byproducts, palm and sunflower oil which were more economically viable. Results: There was a total of 7, 5 and 4 types of fatty acid methyl esters presence in the fish, palm and sunflower biodiesel, respectively. The quality of biodiesel such as viscosity, total acid number, fuel consumption and emission rate was evaluated. The kinematic viscosity was maintained ASTM standard in case of all produced biodiesel. However, sunflower biodiesel was slightly viscous compared to palm and fish biodiesel. Metal elements such as phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium were present moderately in all biodiesel but it was limited range in fish oil. In the engine tests, the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide were lower in palm biodiesel than in sunflower and fish biodiesel. Fuel consumption was higher in palm biodiesel. Fish biodiesel had the lowest fuel consumption than that of palm and sunflower biodiesel.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that waste palm oil and fish oil can be considered as a great potential source for commercial biodiesel.