Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Abscisic Acid on Soluble Sugar Contents in Tomato Fruits under Condition of Short-Term Night Sub-Low Temperature1

Nan Wang, Kaiyue Zhang, Na Cui, Haiyan Fan, Yang Yu, Tianlai Li

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 794-800
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/11296

Aims: This research explored the effect of ABA treatment before short-term night sub-low temperature on the sugar composition and contents, and provided theoretical basis for temperature management in tomato protected cultivation.

Study Design: The whole tomato was treated by spraying with 50mmol/L and 100mmol/L ABA respectively before short-tern night sub-low temperature. Spraying distilled water was as the control. The lower temperature treatment was as the lower temperature control group.

Place and Duration of Study: Biological Science and Technology College, between February 2013 and March 2014.

Methodology: The sugar composition and contents were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

Results: The pectinic tissues, pericarp and dissepiments after sub-low temperature treatment had high contents of three soluble sugars at the early fruit development stage. The fructose and glucose contents were reduced by the 50mmol/L ABA treatment under condition of lower temperature. At the fruit mature stage, contents of three soluble sugars in the pericarp and dissepiments after sub-low temperature treatment had less than those in control group and had higher accumulation than the other two groups by 50mmol/L ABA treatment, but the soluble sugars contents were reduced by ABA treatment in the pectinic tissues.

Conclusion: 50mmol/L ABA was the optimum concentration on improving the ability of resisting sub-low temperature in tomato fruits at the early development stage, improving the tomato fruit quality at the fruit mature stage, promoting transfer of soluble sugars to structure matter or storage matter. However, the effects of ABA on sugar accumulation were different in the pectinic tissues or pericarp and dissepiments. 

Open Access Short Research Article

In-vitro Propagation of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f

Sharmistha Gupta, Pankaj K. Sahu, Devki L. Sen, Priyanka Pandey

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 806-816
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/9747

Department of Botany, Dr. C.V. Raman University, Bilaspur, (C.G.) India

Aim: In vitro culture is used for commercial production and is achieved in aseptic condition using different concentration and combination of Plant Growth Regulators (PGR).

Material and Methods: In present work studied the effects of different plant growth regulator singly or in combination in tissue culture of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. belongs to the family Liliaceae or Asphodelaceae, used in ayurveda as well as pharmaceutical industry. Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with different combinations and concentration of growth promoters i.e. Auxin (Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) were used in this study. Surface sterilization was standardised with HgCl2 with various concentration and time.

Observation and Result: The development of callus type was observed in the MS media supplemented with BAP for best regeneration, IBA for root formation and NAA, was found the best media for root formation (0.5mg/l) were seen to grow onwards from the tenth day of culture and 90% of root formation took place within a span of 3-4 weeks for maximum callus induction. The maximum number of root & shoot produced is 4.8±0.53 with average length of 3.5±0.35cm.

Discussion: The present work deals with in vitro plant growth of Aloe vera through tissue culture for propagation and ex situ conservation. Regenerated plants after acclimatization were transferred to soil and they showed 85% survival. The culture response was maximum in apical buds (100%) and minimum time required is 9.67 days in the same media. The average length of shoots per culture was 4.0±0.16cm. In present study among the three types of auxins, NAA was found to be the best for root induction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability in Cultured and Wild Population of Clarias gariepinus Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

O. Michael Popoola, A. Emmanuel Fasakin, I. John Awopetu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 751-759
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/11228

Genetic Variability in Cultured and Wild Population of Clarias gariepinus Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic differences between cultured and wild populations of Clarias gariepinus in Southwest Nigeria using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

Study Design: Three wild populations from River Osun, Owena, and Agbabu and three farmed populations from hatcheries in Akure, Ilesa and Ado-Ekiti, were collected for the study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, between june 2012 and January 2013

Methodology: Two hundred and forty live specimens of C. gariepinus were analysed for their genetic differences. Live specimens comprising forty individual from each location were collected and kept in six concrete tanks (2x1x1) m3 at Teaching and Research Farm of Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Federal University of Technology, Akure. Blood samples were collected and used for Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel (SDS-PAGE) for the protein profiling.

Results: The protein profile produced two clusters which indicate divergence of the species into two sub species. There was high level of genetic heterogeneity among samples of Clarias species and those from various locations under study. The SDS-PAGE banding patterns across the six populations studied showed that the mean heterozygosity for the six populations ranged from 0.398 to 0.425.

Conclusion: This study has established that there is genetic difference in both wild and cultured C. gariepinus. Further study involving RAPD, microsatellite, and AFLP can be used to maximize the efficiency of the study. Also, increased number of samples could improve the validity of this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Production Potential of Co-Digestion of Pig Droppings with Cow Dung Under Tropical Conditions

Emmanuel C. Chukwuma, Godwin O. Chukwuma

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 760-768
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/10776

The biogas production potential of animal wastes offers sustainable biogas production, cleaner environment and economic benefits. This work is an investigation into the best blend leading to higher biogas production from two major animal wastes for improved biogas production. The study of biogas production potentials was conducted for pig droppings (PGD) with cow dung (CD) in different mixture ratios of 100: 00, 75: 25, 50: 50, 25:75 and 00:100 to determine the optimum mixture ratio in a 30 litres digesters. The results revealed that 50%PGD + 50%CD is the optimum mixture ratio for the selected animal waste. The first order kinetic model used in the study adequately fitted the experimental data for the digesters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungal Infection Enhances Anthocyanin Production in Blue Flowers of Clitoria ternatea

Aroonsri Priprem, Sophon Boonlue, Natanong Yodsing, Bhattaranitch Khampaenjiraroch

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 769-777
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/10370

Penicillium citrinum

Aims: A white fungus which commonly infects blue petals of Clitoria ternatea L. (CT) was identified and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of CT extracts from infected and uninfected CT were compared.

Study Design:  Experimental research.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples of infected and non-infected CT were collected from Muang, Khon Kaen and chemical analysis was undertaken at Khon Kaen University between July and December 2012. Fungus was identified at Department of Microbiology in April 2013.

Methodology: Samples of dried CT, with and without white fungus infection, were collected. The CT-infected fungus was isolated for microscopic characterization and DNA isolated for amplifying of its ITS rDNA, and analyzing their sequences with neighbor joining phylogenetic tree. Total anthocyanin content by pH differential method and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay were used to compare infected and non-infected CT extracts in comparison to trolox.  Both extracts were analyzed by HPLC in comparison to cyanidin.

Results: Morphology and DNA of the infected fungus was characterized and confirmed to be Penicillium citrinum KKU-Rx1. In comparison to aqueous extracts of non-infected CT, infected CT gave about 1.5 times higher total anthocyanin content (P=.002) and cyanidin (P = .009). Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of infected-CT extracts was 1, while that of non-infected CT extracts was 0.7 (P<.001).

Conclusion: Penicillium citrinum was identified from white fungus infection on deep blue flowers of Clitoria ternatea and shown to enhance the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of the CT extracts.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatic Gene Expression of Insulin like Growth Factor and Selected Antioxidants in Diabetic Rats Treated with Turmeric or Black Cumin Seed

S. M. El-Bahr, I. M. El-Sabagh

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 778-793
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/11121

The effects of black cumin seed or curcumin on blood glucose level, lipid peroxidation and gene expression of selected antioxidant enzymes and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic rats were studied. Thirty two rats were assigned into four groups (8 rats in each). Rats of first group were non diabetic whereas rats of the second group were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). Both groups served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Rats of the third and fourth groups were rendered diabetic and received oral Turmeric (1g/kg b.w.) and Black cumin seed (2g/kg b.w.), respectively for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed significant increase of blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared to the control non diabetic group. Gene expression of GPX and SOD was increased significantly in diabetic untreated rats compared to the control non diabetic group. The administration of either black cumin seed or curcumin to diabetic rats normalized significantly their blood sugar level and TBARS values and increased the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes. In addition, both plants treated rats showed significant increase in mRNA expression of IGF-1 and SOD compared to non-diabetic and diabetic untreated rats. Black cumin seed and curcumin was antidiabetic therapy, induced hypoglycemia by up-regulation of IGF-1 gene and ameliorate the diabetes induced oxidative stress via increasing the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Moringa Oleifera Linn Seed Administration on Sperm Production Rate and Gonadal Sperm Reserve in Rabbits

S. I. Musa-Azara, M. Jibrin, M. M. Ari, D. I. Hassan, D. M. Ogah

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 801-805
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/7782

Aim of Study: To investigate the effects of oral administration of moringa seed on sperm production rate and gonadal sperm reserve in rabbits.

Study Design: 7 Month old mixed breed male rabbits were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. Group 1(n=30) was the control group whereas the rabbits in group 2 (n=30) were administered Moringa oleifera seed powder in drinking water (250mg/L). After 4 weeks, the gonadal sperm reserve, daily sperm production, sperm production per gram testes and testicular dimensions (weight, volume and density) was compared between the two groups. 

 Place and Duration of Study: Livestock farm, College of Agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria, from May to June 2013.   

 Methodology: Gonadal sperm reserve was estimated using a haemocytometer. Testicular weight and volume were determined using laboratory scale and water displacement method respectively. Parenchyma (1g) of each testis was sectioned and homogenized in 10ml of normal saline. The homogenate was filtered through 2 layers of loosely netted bandage. Spermatozoa number was determined using an improved Neubauer chamber. Daily sperm production (DSP) was estimated by dividing the gonadal sperm reserve by a time divisor of 3.66 corresponding to the time in days of the duration of the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Daily sperm production per gram testes (DSPG) was determined by dividing the DSP by the weight of testicular parenchyma.

Results:  The results indicate significantly higher gonadal sperm reserve and daily sperm production for the control group compared to the treatment,(4.37±.18 to 3.27±.32 and 1.20±.06 to 0.77±.09)  Mean values of daily sperm production per gram testes were however similar for all groups(0.53±.03 and 0.47±.20). Testicular weight (2.20±.06 to 1.43±.12) and volume (2.20±.15 to 1.73±.07) were significantly higher for the control group compared to treatment (P=0.05). Tissue density was similar for both groups (1.01±.05 to 0.82±.07).  


Open Access Original Research Article

Technological Properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 Isolated from Nigerian Beef and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by It

O. A. Olaoye

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 829-845
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/11719

Technological Properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 Isolated from Nigerian Beef and Characterization of Bacteriocin

Produced by It

Aim: The present study reports the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Lactococcus strains isolated from Nigerian beef. The technological properties of selected strains were evaluated in order to test their suitability as candidates of starter cultures for food preservation.

Study Design: Experimental microbiological testing.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, University of Ibadan, Nigeria  and Division of Food Sciences, The University of Nottingham, UK; between January 2005 and February 2009.

Methodology: Phenotypic method was adopted in the initial characterization of the presumptive Lactococcus strains which were later characterized using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The use of 16S rDNA sequencing was adopted in the full identification of selected strains. High performance liquid chromatography and Gas chromatography were employed in determining production of organic acids and diacetyl respectively by the strains of Lactococcus. Testing and identification of bacteriocin production by the strains were observed using in vitro and polymerase chain reaction methods. The antimicrobial activities of the strains were evaluated against known spoilage and pathogenic organisms of food origin.

Results: Three strains, Lc. lactis L11, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis I23 and Lc. lactis subsp. hordinae E91 showed better production of diacetyl and lactic acid than others; concentrations in excess of 31.15 µg/10-7cfu and 17.56 g/107cfu at 18 and 24 h of incubation were recorded for the respective compounds. Result of their antimicrobial activities indicates that varying levels of inhibition were recorded against the spoilage/pathogenic organisms; however no inhibition was recorded against Brochothrix thermosphacta except by Lc. lactis subsp lactis I23 which was shown to encode gene for production of bacteriocin, nisin. The nucleotide sequence of the bacteriocin was deposited at the genBank under accession number EU667387.

Conclusion: The ability of the three Lactococcus strains to combat spoilage and pathogenic organisms could help promote safety in food processing and preservation in Nigeria; moreover, production of bacteriocin by Lc. lactis subsp. lactis I23 may confer added advantage during choice of candidacy for starter cultures in food biopreservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inter Simple Sequence Repeats Polymorphism in Sudanese Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Accessions

Haitham K. A. El-Amin, Nada B. Hamza

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 846-857
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/4275

Aims: Investigate the degree of polymorphism using 41 ISSR (Inter-simple sequence repeat) markers in 50 sorghum accessions from 11 different regions in Sudan and Republic of South Sudan.

Study Design: UPGMA cluster analysis using STATISTCA- SPSS software Ver. 9.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Biology, Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Center for Research, Khartoum, Sudan (2010-2012).

Methodology: 50 sorghum accessions with important agronomic traits, representing 11 regions in Sudan and Republic of South Sudan were assayed for polymorphism using Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Seven primers out of 41 tested (807, 808, 810, 814, 848, 872 and 879) showed high polymorphism among the Sorghum accessions.

Results: The results indicated 75 polymorphic bands out of 78 bands with percentage of polymorphic bands of 97%. UPGMA analysis showed ISSR distance matrix ranged between (0.04-0.47) which reflected high genetic diversity. The ISSR UPGMA dendrogram showed high molecular variance within regions. Based on the results of this study ISSR technique showed differences among closely related accessions of sorghum. Also it proved to be useful technique to study genetic variation among the Sudanese Sorghum accessions.

Conclusion: Sorghum accessions from Sudan exhibits high genetic variation within and among regions. ISSR marker technique used in this study proved that it is efficient and could be very useful for breeders and researchers community in various fields of sorghum improvement in Sudan.

Open Access Review Article

Antitheilerial Herbal Medicine: A Review

Hayat M. Farah, Tigani H. El-Amin, Hassan E. Khalid, Abdel Rahim M. El Hussein

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 817-828
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2014/10377

The aim of this study is to overview some of the medicinal plants tested for the treatment of theileriosis. Treatment of theileriosis with standard drugs such as parvaquone and buparvaquone is very expensive, and these drugs are not always available in the third world developing countries. Thus, it is desirable to seek for discovery of medicinal plants for treatment of theileriosis.