Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Water on the Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings

Haina Zhang, Haiyan Fan, Yang Yu, Xiaoyan Liu, Xiaoguang Yu, Zhouping Sun

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/45202

Aims: The aim of the paper was to study the effect and specific mechanism of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) improving cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings growth.

Study Design: 14-day-old cucumber seedlings were treated with different saturation hydrogen-rich water in root for three times every three days. After one day of the last treatment, growth parameters were determined and plants tissues were sampled for test photosynthetic characteristics.

Place and Duration of Study: In 2017, cucumber (C. sativus ‘JinYan4’) were germinated in College of Bioscience and Biotechnology of Shenyang Agricultural University (Lab ChuangXin).

Methodology: 20 cucumbers and 3 replicates were determined for growth parameters. The determination of total soluble sugar and soluble protein content are the methods of Anthrone colorimetry and Coomassic Brilliant Blue. Chlorophyll content was tested by using ethanol immersion extraction method. Gas exchange parameters were measured with LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of leaves were measured by a Handy PEA Fluorometer.

Results: Our results showed that 50% saturation HRW significantly enhanced the growth and development of cucumber seedlings, including the improvement of fresh weight, plant height, stem diameter and leaf area. These responses were consistent with a significant increase of leaf water content, total soluble sugar content and soluble protein content, which was further confirmed by the determination of photosynthetic related parameters. Also, research results illustrated that HRW up-regulated chlorophyll content and changed chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of leaves. The increase of chlorophyll content promoted the absorption of light and enhanced plant photosynthesis. Furthermore, HRW changed the leaf stomata conductance and decreased transpiration so as to improve the photosynthetic rate.

Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of HRW on cucumber seedling was associated with plant photosynthesis. Therefore, the application of HRW may be a promising strategy to improve cucumber growth.

Open Access Short Research Article

Mycorrhizal Diversity Associated to Liparis japonica (Miq.) Maxim. in China

Shao Mei-Ni, Wang Ping-Ping, Liu Zhi, Guan Jun-Jie, Qu Bo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/45081

Orchidaceae (Orchidaceae) is the second largest family of angiosperms. It’s the "flagship" group in plant protection. The existence of orchid plant is closely related to mycorrhizal fungi. The relationship between orchids and their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi is a benefit to the protection and population restoration of orchids.

Aims: The research was aimed to study molecular identification about 15 strains of mycorrhizal fungi from 6 plots by rDNA ITS technology in order to understand and utilise the mycorrhizal fungi of Liparis japonica (Miq.) Maxim.

Study Design: The mycorrhizal fungi collected from different geographical locations were isolated and purified from the mycorrhizal fungi symbiotic with Liparis japonica in Northeast China, which were identified by rDNA ITS, meanwhile computed evolutionary distance and constructed the phylogenetic tree.

Place and Duration of Study: In 2017, the root segments of Liparis japonica were collected separately from Qianshan, Changbaishan, Gaoguan, Guanmenshan, Dongling, Daqinggou.

Methodology: Fifteen strains of mycorrhizal fungi collected from six plots were identified by rDNA ITS. Using DNAMAN software to analyse, the pairwise homology was compared by using the optimal global sequencing option. The evolutionary distances of fifteen strains were calculated by MEGA (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis) software package and their phylogenetic trees were constructed by neighbour-joining method.

Results: With primers ITS1 and ITS4, the 15 mycorrhizal fungi strains of rDNA ITS got about 600 bp length. ITS length was about 582-613 bp, in which ITS1 length was about 177-190 bp, and ITS2 length was 246-273 bp. The mycorrhizal fungi strains were highly homology separated from one plot, mostly above 90%. The plots from the south to the north were as follows: Qianshan, Guanmenshan, Gaoguan, Dongling, Changbaishan, Daqinggou in China. Fifteen strains after separated and purified were identified to be the Epulorhiza of Orchid Rhizoctonia blasted with Genbank. The homology of the strains gradually decreased affected by the difference of the north and the south, namely there was an increasing trend of diversity from south to north.

Conclusion: The homology of mycorrhizal fungi from one plot was higher because of the same soil environment and climate environment and so on, and strain type was single. Under the influence of microclimate in Northeast China, the homology of strains decreased gradually in the sample area, that is, the diversity gradually increased from the south to the north.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ronstar® on the Hematological Parameters of the Freshwater Catfish Clarias albopunctatus Fingerlings

Ndubuisi Stanley Oluah, Hyacinth Utazi, Norman Asogwa

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/7869

Clarias albopunctatus juvenile (mean weight 85.40±2.67 g) was exposed to sublethal concentrations of Ronstar (0, 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/l) in a static renewal bioassay system for 15 days. The hematological parameters of the fish were determined every 5 days. When compared with the control, the erythrocyte count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and the hematocrit (Hct) were significantly reduced (P<.05) between the treatment groups. These values also differed (P<.05) within the treatment groups. The leucocyte counts increased with increasing Ronstar concentration and during the exposure. Compared with the control, significant (P<05) lymphocytosis, monocytopenia, neutropenia and reduced eosinophil were all evident in the treatment groups. The reduction in the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin are indications of anemia in the fish exposed to Ronstar. The assay of these parameters could be of immense value in establishing safe limits for pesticides in Nigerian waters as well as in the monitoring of fish health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gene Action of Cassava Resistance Metabolites to Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci)

N. Mwila, T. L. Odong, E. Nuwamanya, A. Badji, S. Agbahoungba, P. A. Ibanda, F. Kumi, M. Mwala, P. Sohati, S. Kyamanywa, P. R. Rubaihayo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/43064

Several metabolites are linked to cassava resistance to whitefly. There is limited information however, on the mode of gene action of the metabolites associated with cassava resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). The objective of the study was to determine the combining abilities and mode of gene action of salicylic acid, antioxidative capacity, total phenolic content, flavonoid, tannin, peroxidase and protein of selected cassava genotypes. Ten genotypes were crossed in half diallel and the parental and 45 S1 progenies evaluated for nymph count, whitefly count, leaf damage and sooty mold at Namulonge in season two of 2016. In season one and two of 2017, the parental genotypes and their corresponding forty-five S1 progenies were evaluated in randomized complete blocks with two replications for Bemisia tabaci population and leaf damage and leaf metabolite content assayed. The results indicated highly significant (P<.001) differences among genotypes for general combining ability (GCA) to antioxidative capacity; (P<.05) for total phenolic content, peroxidase and protein and (P<.01) for salicylic acid, tannin and flavonoid. The specific combining ability (SCA)showed significant (P<.001) differences for salicylic acid; (P<.01) for antioxidative capacity and total phenolic content. The additive variance was significant (P< .05) for flavonoid, protein; (P<.01) for antioxidative capacity, total phenolic content, tannin and peroxidase. The dominance variance had high significance (P<.001) for salicylic acid; (P<.05) for flavonoid and (P<.01) for antioxidative capacity and total phenolic content. Although additive gene action was higher than non-additive, both were influencing most metabolites indicating complexity of inheritance. A critical evaluation is necessary when exploiting metabolite related traits in breeding for resistance to Bemisia tabaci.

Open Access Review Article

Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Realities, Challenges and Prospects

A. A. Unimke, O. A. Mmuoegbulam, O. C. Anika

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2018/43957

One of the emerging environmental challenges today is hydrocarbon pollution arising from activities of petrochemical industries, natural sources of crude oil pollution and other anthropogenic activities. These petroleum products contain harmful, carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds which could have severe consequences on biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem. Physicochemical and biological methods are employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated systems; however, the negative impacts of the physicochemical approach are presently directing greater attention to the exploitation of the biological alternatives. This article reviews basic concepts of petroleum hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms, factors that influence the biodegradation of contaminants and innovative technologies for the effective removal of these pollutants. This article also discusses the applications of relative advances in molecular biological techniques, such as the isolation of plasmid DNA of microbial communities and the use of genetically engineered microorganisms to increase the rates of biodegradation of hydrocarbon pollutants in the environment.