Open Access Short Research Article

Changes of Lycopene, Beta-carotene, Glucose, GA3 and ABA Contents in Different Parts of Tomato

Yang Yu, Qian Weng, Baoli Zhou

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23865

Aims: This research studied the dynamic changes of main pigments, glucose, GA3 (Gibberellic acid) and ABA (Abscisic acid) contents in different parts of tomato fruit during the ripening stage, and provided references for the further research for the coloring mechanism of tomato fruits.

Study Design: When the second cluster of tomato fruits reached green mature stage, fruits were labeled and sampled. The fruits from each ripening stage were sampled and dissected to individual parts for measuring the contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, glucose, GA3 and ABA.

Place and Duration of Study: Horticultural College, between February 2014 and March 2015.

Methodology: The contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, glucose, GA3 and ABA were determined   by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography).

Results: The contents of lycopene and glucose increased during the ripening of tomato fruits, and the contents of β-carotene increased after slightly decreased. At the redⅡstage, the maximum contents of lycopene and glucose were in the peripheral pericarp, and the maximum content of β-carotene was in pectin. The contents GA3 decreased during ripening stage, and the minimum content of GA3 was in peripheral pericarp at the redⅡstage. The change of ABA contents which stayed in a low level in all parts was like a bimodal curve during the whole ripening stage.

Conclusion: Accumulation of lycopene and β-carotene was accompanied by the increasing of glucose and ABA contents, and by the decreasing of GA3 content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Diversity Analysis of Coat Protein Gene Encoded by Legume Begomoviruses and PCR Assay to Detect Yellow Mosaic Viruses Infecting Soybean in India

Shunmugiah V. Ramesh, Bhagat S. Chouhan, Girish K. Gupta, Rajkumar Ramteke, Suresh Chand, Syed M. Husain

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24362

Aim: Coat protein (CP) genes encoded by Legume yellow mosaic viruses (LYMVs) were analysed to study molecular diversity and to devise effective PCR based assay to distinguish major Begomovirus species (Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus) infecting soybean

Design of the Study: All the known coat protein gene sequences encoded by begomoviruses causing yellow mosaic disease (YMD) in legumes were obtained from GenBank. YMD infected soybean leaf samples were collected from different parts of India during Kharif 2012 and species of virus infections identified using CP gene based primers in a PCR assay.

Methodology: DNA polymorphism, phylogeny, and test of theory of neutral evolution were studied to decode variability and molecular evolutionary lineage of LYMVs encoded CP gene. CP based primers have been designed and employed to differentiate MYMIV and MYMV using infected soybean samples collected across India.

Results: Nucleotide diversity and DNA polymorphism studies revealed relatively low levels of diversity in CP genes encoded by LYMV isolates. Test of neutral evolution and codon substitution analysis also reiterated the operation of purifying selection indicating deleterious mutations in CP gene are not tolerated in the LYMV population. Geographical confinement of species of yellow mosaic viruses infecting soybean is further validated as diseased soybean samples collected from Northern and Central India showed infection due to MYMIV and samples obtained from Southern and Western India were infected with MYMV.

Conclusion: Evolutionary genomic analysis revealed conserved nature of LYMV encoded CP gene however a variable region has been identified.PCR assay for differentiation of two major begomoviruses viz.,) MYMV and MYMIV infecting soybean in India has been standardised. This is the first report of population genetics in LYMVs and it’s implications for yellow mosaic disease (YMD) resistance breeding in soybean are also discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Wine and Vinegar from Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) “Apple”

Samuel Lowor, Daniel Yabani, Kumi Winifred, C. K. Agyente-Badu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23366

Aims: To prepare commercial-grade wine from cashew apples using less expensive household materials and vinegar production by natural spontaneous fermentation.

Study Design: Cashew wine was prepared by fermenting cashew apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisae. Various parameters viz., time, pH, temperature, density and vinegar concentration was monitored.

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry Division and New Product Development Unit, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, between February 2009 and July 2013.

Methodology: Progress and quality of fermentation were carried out by using various biochemical tests. Acceptability of products was determined by sensory analysis.

Results: Physico-chemical analyses of the wine during fermentation showed a decrease in specific gravity and pH, and a corresponding increase in titratable, fixed and volatile acidity. The ageing wine was amber, dry (12.58±0.24%v/v alcohol content), slightly acidic in taste (titratable acidity of 0.79±0.02 g tartaric acid/100 mL and pH of 3.84±0.04) and had high phenolic content (406.10±4.56 mg/100 mL) and a distinct cashew apple juice smell. Microbiological assay of the wine showed no microbial growth. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (P>.05) between the cashew wine and a commercial grape wine with respect to clarity, colour, taste, astringency and aftertaste. However, in terms of aroma, the grape wine was found to be significantly superior (P<.05) to the cashew wine. Vinegar was produced by natural spontaneous acetic acid fermentation of the cashew wine. Chemical monitoring of the acetic acid fermentation showed a decline in both alcohol and pH from 7.14±0.04%v/v to 0.00±0.04%v/v and 4.23±0.03 to 2.40±0.27 respectively over a period of 29 days. Conversely, volatile acidity increased from 0.01±0.01 g acetic acid/100 mL to 6.85±0.03 g acetic acid/100 mL over the same period. The characteristics of the cashew vinegar met the standard specifications for vinegar.

Conclusion: This study shows that ordinary household materials could be used to commercially exploit the underutilised cashew apples in Ghana through the production of wine and vinegar to conserve foreign exchange and increase the income of farmers in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of in vitro Antifungal Activity of Silver and Selenium Nanoparticles against Alternaria solani Caused Early Blight Disease on Potato

Abdel- Wahab A. Ismail, Nagwa M. Sidkey, Rawhia A. Arafa, Rasha M. Fathy, Ahmed I. El-Batal

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24155

Aim: This study investigated the effect of silver and selenium nanoparticles on Alternaria solani, the pathogenic fungus causing early blight disease of potato.

Place and Duration of Study: Drug Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research & Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, 2013.

Methodology: The fungus was isolated from infected potato leaves that showed brown circular spots as early blight disease symptoms. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared biologically using gamma irradiated Trichoderma viride cell free supernatant. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were prepared by glutathione method. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Kocide® fungicide was used as reference.

Results: The fungus isolated of leaf spot was identified both microscopically and genetically as Alternaria solani causing early blight disease of potato. AgNPs were spherical in shape with average size of 12.7 nm. Selenium nanoparticles were prepared by glutathione as reducing agents. Under laboratory conditions, 25 µg/ml concentration of silver nanoparticles completely inhibited             A. solani as compared to Kocide®, fungicide that gave maximum inhibition at 600 µg/ml. The selenium nanoparticles completely inhibited the fungal growth at 800 µg/ml.

Conclusion: AgNPs completely inhibited the growth of A. solani at low concentrations. Silver nanoparticles might be suitable alternative to chemical fungicides. While, SeNPs can be used as antioxidant for enhancing plant immunity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phyletic Evolution of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Interkingdom Host Colonization between Plants and Insects

Wei Lei, Xiaorong Shui, Guren Zhang, Xin Liu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23536

Ophiocordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus parasitic in the larvae of ghost moths (Lepidoptera), has always been used as one of the most valued Traditional Chinese Medicines throughout the Orient World. However, O. sinensis fails to be artificially cultivated so far, because its occurrence and developmental mechanisms are crucial but almost completely unknown. In this study, the genetic marker mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) gene was cloned and identified by PCR and bioinformatic tools, and then the phylogenetic relationship between O. sinensis and related species was established based on mtSSU sequences with Maximum-Parsimony method. This phylogenetic project was reconstructed to show the evolution of host specificity and the process of interkingdom host jumping of O. sinensis, which revealed a natural outcome of             co-evolution among this fungus, plants and Thitarodes insects. Therefore, this study will contribute to promote our understanding for life history and occurrence mechanism of O. sinensis.