Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Measurement of Glucose Concentration in Human Blood Plasma Mixed Intralipid Phantom Samples by Using Modulated Ultrasound and Infrared Light

Anuj Srivastava, Md. Koushik Chowdhury, Shiru Sharma Sharma, Neeraj Sharma

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24861

Non-invasive blood glucose measurement is one of most innovative domain in Biomedical Engineering. Multiple methodologies have-been introduced over last few decades to fulfil the clinical requirement for non-invasive glucose measurement in human beings, however, without a successful breakthrough. This research article uses modulated ultrasound with infrared light-based technique to study glucose-induced variations in human blood plasma mixed IntralipidTM phantom samples using infrared light of 940 nm and 40 kHz central frequency based ultrasonic transmitter unit. The test uses blood samples of 30 study subjects during oral glucose tolerance test and fasting, postprandial and random stages based blood glucose tests respectively. The result as obtained from oral glucose tolerance tests and fasting, postprandial and random stages blood glucose tests showed peak amplitude values in Fast Fourier Transform domain varies in corresponding to blood glucose levels in in-vitro samples. The Bland Altman plot, Error Grid and statistical analysis represent the potentiality and feasibility of our technique for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Properties of Aspergillus flavus Cellulase Produced from Solid State Fermentation of Brewers’ Spent Grain (BSG) as Substrate

F. A. Orji, E. N. Dike, A. K. Lawal, A. O. Sadiq, F. Fashola, Y. L. Suberu, A. C. Famotemi, B. Ita, A. I. Ugbana, A. O. Adefiranye, E. E. Itoandon, G. N. Elemo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24882

The production of cellulase from Aspergillus flavus isolated from Brewers’ Spent Grain (BSG) undergoing bio-deterioration was carried out using solid state fermentation method. Out of a total of four fungal isolates with cellulase producing potentials, Aspergillus flavus with a clearance zone of 5.0cm was the best hyper-producer and was selected for optimization and cellulase production. Two different enzyme production media containing either yeast extract or potassium nitrate (KNO3) served as sources of nitrogen to the Aspergillus flavus. The crude activity of the potassium nitrate (KNO3) option (28,170 Units) was significantly higher than the crude cellulase from yeast extract option (18,600 Units). Ammonium sulphate precipitation at 60%, 80%, and 100% had cellulase activities 14600 units, 4400 unit, and 2800uits in yeast extract amended experimental option. In addition, ammonium sulphate precipitation at 60%, 80%, and 100% gave cellulase activities of 21130 units, 1700 units, and 1110 units, respectively in the KNO3 amended experimental option. Thus, 60% ammonium sulphate precipitation gave the best cellulase activity. The optimum pH of Aspergillus flavus cellulase was 6.0, while the optimum temperatures were between 50°C to 60°C. Tolerance to some alkali and alkaline–earth metals was also established, and probable co-factor behaviour of manganese ion to this cellulase was also established. Good government policies that support high import duties on foreign enzymes, emphasis on local production are advocated for in order to stamp out the economic leakages accruing through enzyme importation into Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance in Non-enterococcal Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Yoghurt

Udoka Nnaemeka Jerome, Ojiagu David-Kingsley, Ojiagu Nnenna Chinelo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25178

Aims: To evaluate the antibiotic resistance in non- enterococcal lactic acid bacteria.

Study Design: Examination of commercially available yoghurts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, from June 2011 and May, 2012.

Methodology: Commercially available yoghurt (25 brands in all) purchased in Awka and Onitsha towns, Anambra State, Nigeria were evaluated for the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains present, their probiotic potentials and their antibiotic resistance/susceptibility. Out of this total, 8 isolates          (6 Lactobacillus sp and 2 Streptococcus sp) were obtained for further studies. The probiotic characteristics of the 8 isolates were evaluated in vitro. The in vitro tests used to evaluate probiotic potentials were: tolerance to low pH and bovine bile, cell surface hydrophobicity, and antimicrobial activities.

Results: Generally, Lactobacillus E5 showed the best probiotic characteristics among the strains tested.  This strain was able to survive at pH of 2.5 for 3 hours of exposure to fresh bovine bile and had low cell surface hydrophobicity. It was also resistant to some of the commonly used antibiotics and inhibited test pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli 1 and Staphylococcus aureus). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the 8 isolates were tested against 12 antibiotic agents. All the isolates obtained in this study were found to be resistant to Gentamycin but sensitive to Clindamycin and Lincomycin.

Conclusion: Although the use of LAB has a long and safe history and has acquired the “generally regarded as safe” (GRAS) status, the safety of selected strains should be evaluated before use, not only for virulence factors and other disease-causing traits, but also for the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and their capability of disseminating these determinants.

Open Access Review Article

Molecular Biology of Microbial Pectate Lyase: A Review

Amit K. Dubey, Sangeeta Yadav, Manish Kumar, Gautam Anand, Dinesh Yadav

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-26
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24893

Pectate lyase represents an important member of pectinase group of enzymes responsible for the pathogenesis and softening of plant tissues. It also has role in fruit juice clarification and in retting of natural fibers. The biochemical characterization of pectate lyases from diverse microbial sources and plants along with an insight to the protein structure has been dealt earlier but there is a lack of exclusive review on the molecular biology of pectate lyases. This review tries to fill the gap by highlighting the various aspects of molecular biology of microbial pectate lyases especially the cloning and expression of pectate lyase genes from diverse sources attempted so far. The topics covered in this review are a brief description about enzymes associated with degradation of pectin, its classification, applications, updated information about the biochemical characterization of microbial pectate lyases and cloning and expression of microbial pectate lyase genes.

Open Access Review Article

Dermatoglyphics and Malocclusion-A Forensic Link

Meenu Taneja Bhasin, Prashant Bhasin, Ashish Singh, Nidhi Bhatia, Akhilesh H. Shewale, Natasha Gambhir

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24451

Dermatoglyphics is known to be one of the best available diagnostic tools in genetic disorders. Dermatoglyphics refers to the study of epidermal ridges on the finger & palmer region 1 of the hand and sole. The finger prints are unique characteristic features of an individual and remain unchanged over lifetime. The dermatoglyphics patterns, have the same origin as that of the facial structures, as well develop concurrently. Thus, hereditary and environmental factors leading to malocclusions may also set off peculiarities in fingerprint patterns. This article aims to give brief insight of different aspects of dermatoglyphics studies highlighting is utility in diagnosing malocclusion and other developmental disturbances of the oro-facial structures.