Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Identification of Bacillus Species during Spontaneous Fermentation of Lima Bean Flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

Kouadio Patrick N’zi, Kouadio Constant Attchelouwa, Kouadio Florent N’guessan, Kablan Tano

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i130160

Aims: Bacillus species is used as starter culture to improve quality of the fermented product. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify Bacillus species during the spontaneous fermentation of Phaseolus lunatus with prospective selection as starter cultures.

Study Design: Spontaneous fermentation of Phaseolus lunatus flour was allowed to proceed at ambient temperature (29±2°C) for three days under anaerobic condition.

Methodology: The Bacillus counts were determined and 100 isolates were identified by PCR and the sequencing of 16S rDNA domain.

Results: In unfermented sample the Bacillus count was 3.14 log CFU/mL. During fermentation the count being between 2.68 and 2.88 log CFU/mL. Based on PCR and the sequencing of 16S rDNA domain, Bacillus isolates were assigned to four species Bacillus sp, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacillus agri and Bacillus xiamensisis. Bacillus spp, Bacillus subtillis and Bacillus cereus were detected at all the fermentation times. Their frequencies were between 14.29 and 45.83%, 25 and 35.71%, 25 and 50% respectively.

Conclusion: Among these species Bacillus subtillis could be used as starter culture to improve quality of the fermented product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression Assessment of Some Immunity-related Genes in Buffalo Infected with Endometritis

Othman E. Othman, Dalia A. Taha, Nagwa A. Hassan, Eman R. Mahfouz

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i130161

Background and Aim: Despite the economic importance of buffalo as a main source of milk and meat, only little attention has been directed to its immune and reproductive performance. The early diagnosis of subclinical endometritis may reduce the economic loss of buffalo’s production. The difference in expression profiles of immunity-related genes has an important role in the early detection of subclinical endometritis. This study aimed to assess the expression of five immunity-related genes: TGFBR1, PTGER2, PTGER4, HP and CXCL5 in endometritis-infected buffaloes.

Materials and Methods: Total RNA was extracted from 120 buffalo uterine samples; 60 infected with endometritis and 60 healthy ones. Qt-PCR was performed on cDNA synthesized from extracted RNA using Sybr green and GAPDH as a house-keeping gene.

Results: The results showed the up-regulation of two tested genes; TGFBR1 and CXCL5 in endometritis-infected buffalo compared to healthy animals by 7.9 and 4.3 folds, respectively at a significance level of p<0.05. The other three tested genes; PTGER2, PTGER4 and HP were down-regulated in buffalo during endometritis infection at different levels; PTGER2 and HP (0.6 folds, p<0.05) and PTGER4 (0.4 fold, p= 0.2).

Conclusions: It is to be concluded that the assessment of expression of inflammation-related immunity genes may have an effective role on the detection of endometritis infection in buffalo during its early stages and this early diagnosis can reduce the economic loss of buffalo production and reproduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wound Healing Activity of Neocarya macropyhlla Seed Extracts in Wistar Rats

O. B. Omolere, E. N. Ifedi, I. A. Ajayi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 17-30
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i130162

Neocarya macropuylla seed hexane extract (NMSHE) was examined for the presence of various phytoconstituents.  The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by testing the extract on selected drug resistant bacteria viz: S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and fungi viz: C. albicans, A. niger using agar technique of pour plate and surface plate dilution that were selected based on their peculiarity to humans. Wound healing activity of NMSHE was investigated by formulating a dosage of 5 % and 10 % concentration of the extract in paraffin. 21 wistar rats shared into three groups with each group housing 7 animals each over an experimental period of 21 days were properly fed and  given free access to water throughout the experiment that was authenticated by the weight measurement taken every four days. Investigation of the wound healing activity of the extract was performed by measuring the wound area (mm2) and percentage of wound closure on the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th and 20th day of the study; the wound epitheliasation was determined from the 16th to 20th  days. Histopathological analysis of the control and test groups’ skin tissues, liver, kidney, heart, lung and spleen and haematological evaluation of the blood parameters were carried out at the end of the experiment.

The result of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of terpenoids and glycosides in NMSHE. At 5 % and 10 % concentrations, NMSHE inhibited the growth of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis, C. albicans and A. niger.  Group 2 rats treated with 5 % NMSHE gave a faster and better epitheliasation time than those in group 1 treated with control base ointment. The histopathology and haematology analyses result showed no disparity between the control and the test group; this is a point of reference showing that the extracts seemed to possess some essential constituents which actually hastened the wound healing process.

macrophylla seed hexane extract healed the wound created on wistar rats at a faster time than the control ointment hence could probably serve as a replacement to conventional wound healing ointment.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Preliminary Study on Allelopathy and Potential Allelochemicals of Root Exudates from Solanum rostratum Dunal

Meini Shao, Yongsheng Ma, Yaokai Wang, Shujun Xu, Qing Miao, Qiang Zhai, Bo Qu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i130163

Aims: In order to understand the role of allelopathy in invasion success, effects of root exudates from Solanum rostratum Dunal on germination and primary growth of wheat and cabbage seeds were studied by vitro bioassay. These results indicated the allelopathy of root exudates and would be helpful for understanding Solanum rostratum Dunal invasion. 

Study Design: The roots were washed clean for three times with distilled water before they were gathered in a big bucket. The container was filled with distilled water, enough to submerge the roots, and air was aerated constantly with an air pump. The water extract was collected per 24 hs and for four times totally. The water extract from Solanum rostratum was concentrated with a rotary evaporator at 40°C and deposited in a refrigerator at 4°C. All the root exudates were pooled around 1500 mL, and the fresh weight of Solanum rostratum used for exudates collection was 1208 g, the exudate concentration was then marked as 0.8g f w/mL.

Place and Duration of Study: Solanum rostratum was grown in the greenhouse on April 15th, 2019, its seeds were collected from the invaded fields in Chaoyang city (Liaoning province, China).

Methodology: Petri dish bioassay was applied to test the effects of root exudates of Solanum rostratum on the seeds of wheat and Chinese cabbage. For test of allelochemicals exudated through the root, The compounds in organic fraction of root exudates analysed by GC-MS.

Results: These results indicated the allelopathy of root exudates and would be helpful for understanding Solanum rostratum Dunal invasion.

Conclusion: Root exudates of Solanum rostratum contained some allelochemicals, which could inhibit the germination and radicle growth of wheat and Chinese cabbage, though the effects of root exudates on shoot growth are different, with a stimulation on Chinese cabbage while a inhibition on wheat. The difference indicated a selectivity of allelopathy effect of root exudates from Solanum rostratum Dunal.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Corona Pandemic on Global Environment and Economy

Naveen Gaurav, Anjali Thapa, Yunus Ali, Ashish Kulshrestha, Neha Saini, Pramod Kumar Joshi, Himani Rawat, Amanpreet Kaur, Pankaj Kumar

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 40-55
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i130164

The COVID-19 pandemic is draw into concern as the most reproving international fitness tragedy of the century since December 2019, the era of Second World War. A new transmissible respiratory disease comes in existence in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and the World Health Organization named it as COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019). For the quarter of 2020 the corona virus epidemic has swamp the international locations of the sector and changed the pace, material and nature of our lives. In this evaluation accompanying, we inspect some of the various social, environmental and economic issues influenced by COVID-19. The COVID-19 epidemic has ended in over 4.3 million confirmed instances and over 290,000 deaths globally. The Indian economy as with the global economy, was faced with multiple curtailment too when the pandemic emerged. Advance estimation recommend that the Indian economy is anticipate to witness real GDP augmentation of 9.2 per cent in 2021-22 after reducing in 2020-21. This implicit that overall economic activity has retrieve past the pre-epidemic levels. Social spacing, self-isolation and travel diminution have led to a less staff throughout all capitalism or economic sectors, and because of that many jobs to be bygone. Schools have closed down, and there is requirement for artefacts and products has reduced. In contrast, there requirement for medical essentials has significantly increases. In reaction to this global epidemic, we summarize the effect of COVID-19 on socio-economic condition on individual factors of the world economy and environment.