Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing on in–vitro Protein Digestibility and Anti–nutritional Properties of Three Underutilized Legumes Grown in Nigeria

M. O. Aremu, H. Ibrahim, B. E. Ekanem

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22581

Comparative studies are conducted on the effect of roasting and boiling methods on anti–nutritional properties and in–vitro protein digestibility of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.), scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) which are legume seeds grown in Nigeria. For this purpose some anti–nutritional factors and in–vitro protein digestibility were investigated using standard analytical techniques. Roasting method significantly reduced the anti–nutritional contents while in–vitro protein digestibility values were also decreased by 35.54%, 60.36% and 53.32% for Vigna subterranean, Phaseolus coccineus and Phaseolus lunatus, respectively. Boiling on the other hand significantly decreased the anti–nutritional properties as well as improved the in–vitro protein digestibility by 17.77%, 15.09% and 35.54% for Vigna subterranean, Phaseolus coccineus and Phaseolus lunatus, respectively. Among the two domestic processing methods, boiling was the most effective in reducing anti–nutritional factors and improving in–vitro protein digestibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance, Carcass Yield and Meat Composition of Broiler Chickens

G. O. Adeyemo, O. O. Fashola, T. I. Ademulegun

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/24372

Broiler chickens require adequate feed intake and uninterrupted emission of heat for intensive growth. An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density on performance, carcass yield and meat composition of broilers. A total of 240 one-day old Arbor acre broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three stocking densities: Lower stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m2; Recommended stocking density (RSD) of 12 birds/m2; and Higher stocking density (HSD) of 14 birds/m2 respectively, with 4 replicates each having 20 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Final live weight(FLW); Feed intake(FI); Feed conversion ratio(FCR); Mortality(%); Dressed weight(%); Prima cuts(%); Abdominal fat(%) and meat composition were assessed. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA ∞=0.05. Birds on HSD had numerically higher FLW (2262.80 g), better FCR (2.08) that was similar to that of LSD (2.07) and significantly lower mortality (0.00%). The values of the prime cuts (thigh, drumstick and breast), abdominal fat and meat protein were similar between birds on LSD and HSD. Up to stocking density 14birds/m2 broiler chickens’ performance and carcass characteristics were not negatively affected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Attributes of Meat from Broiler Chickens Fed Pelletised Cassava Chips-Based Diets Supplemented with Graded Levels of Crystalline DL-Methionine

A. D. Ologhobo, Samuel Etop, Olugbenga Ogunwole, Oluwaseun Olayanju

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25689

Aims: This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of cassava chips-based diets with methionine supplementation on performance and meat physico-chemical attributes of broiler chickens.

Methodology: 400 one-day old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly allotted to twenty groups of two replicates each in a 4x5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design (4 levels of methionine (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg) and 5 levels of cassava chips (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%)). Data on performance were collected weekly while at the end of the feeding trial, three birds were sacrificed from each replicate for meat quality evaluation.

Results: Performance results showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) on methionine on final body weight and weight gain and on cassava on weight gain and FCR. The interactive effect of cassava and methionine on weight gain was significant (P<0.05). There were significant differences (P<0.05) on methionine, cassava and their interaction on shear force, water holding capacity and thermal shortening of the meat. Methionine showed significant difference (P<0.05) for aroma and tenderness while cassava was only significant (P<0.05) for juiciness. The main effect of methionine was significant (P<0.05) for TBARS. There was significant difference (P<0.05) on the main effect of methionine, cassava and their interactions on the proximate composition of meat.

Conclusion: Methionine inclusion in cassava chips-based diets had positive effects on performance and meat quality attributes of broiler chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Galactosidase from Cajanus cajans (Pigeon Pea)

Adedoyin Dayo, Ojokuku Sikiru Abiola, O. Okwuraiwe Azuka

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/21345

Aims: This study reported the purification and partial characterization of the enzyme β-galactosidase (EC 3:2: 1: 23) from the seeds of Cajanus cajans.

Methodology: The dry seeds of Cajanus cajans were purchased at Shomolu market in Lagos Nigeria. One hundred and fifty gram of the fine powder of the seed was defatted twice in Soxhlet extractor using 300 mL of cold acetone and maintained at room temperature for 4 hours. There after the dark brown supernatant was decanted and filtered on a Buchner glass funnel. The dark brown residue was then treated with additional quantity of cold acetone until no evidence of fat was found on the fine particles. The acetone extract was allowed to evaporate overnight in the open at room temperature. The dry powder was suspended in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4 stirred in the cold at 4ºC for 4 hours and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4ºC and ammonium sulphate was added to the supernatant to 40-60% saturation level. The pellets were collected by centrifugation and dissolved in 50 mL of 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and dialyzed against distilled water for 48 hours with stirring. The concentrated crude extract was loaded into a column (1.7x3.0 cm) of Sephadex G-75 eluted with 5 mL sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and collected in 4 mL fractions. The fractions collected were assayed for β-galactosidase activity.

Results: A single band was obtained which indicated the presence of single polypeptide chain; optimum pH was found to be 4.0 while the optimum temperature was 45°C in the active enzyme. Conclusion: Enzymatic electrophoresis and molecular evidence in this study indicated that the purified 4.8 kDa protein is a pigeon pea β-galactosidase.

Open Access Review Article

Biopharmaceuticals: New yet Natural

Rajat Chauhan, Neelu Sood

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25742

Biopharmaceuticals are large complex therapeutic drug molecules composed of amino acids, nucleotides and proteins obtained by extraction from non-conventional sources. The biopharmaceutical products include cytokines, interleukins, enzymes, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and clotting factors. Biopharmaceuticals due to their complex heterogeneity are highly sensitive and unstable in nature and may undergo degradation if temperature or pH is altered. The term “biopharmaceutical” is still debatable and the definition of biopharmaceutical is still unclear. The current review intends to throw a light on the general information regarding biopharmaceuticals such as their regulatory definition(s), types, production systems (microbial, plants and mammalian), characterization and delivery techniques of biopharmaceuticals. The global scenario of the sales of biopharmaceuticals is represented along with a case study of biopharmaceuticals in cancer treatment and the sales of oncological products world over. The Indian biotech industries have grown immensely in the last few years such that various pharmaceutical industries are diversifying into biopharmaceutical production. In contrast to so many therapeutic applications, the biopharmaceuticals possess few limitations such as bioaccumulation in the body, toxicity, immunogenicity, contamination, high manufacturing cost etc. The biopharmaceuticals hold a promising future for the healthcare industry. Many innovations in biopharmaceuticals are underway including biosimilars, biobetters, biodrugs, diagnostic biomarkers such as lab on a chip technology and drug therapy based on genetic buildup of an individual (Pharmacogenomics).