Open Access Short Research Article

Antioxidant Property and Phenolic Content of Anthocleista vogelii Root Ethanolic Extract and Fractions

Rita M. Sunday, Olapade R. Ilesanmi, Efere M. Obuotor

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/27016

Aim: To investigate the antioxidant property as well as the phenolic and flavonoid content of Anthocleista vogelii root ethanolic extract (EE) and fractions (aqueous [AF], ethyl acetate [EAF], dichloromethane [DF] and n-hexane [HF] fractions).

Study Design: Activity directed antioxidant and phenolic content investigation of A. vogelii ethanolic root extract and fractions using in vitro methods.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between June and August, 2014.

Methodology: Evaluation of antioxidant activity was conducted using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+) free radical scavenging assay. The total Phenolic content and the cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometric method.

Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extract and fractions exerted potent inhibition of DPPH and ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity; EAF (0.23 mg/mL) and DF (1.41 mg/mL) being the most potent respectively. EAF (91.14 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of extract) also exerted a higher CUPRAC when compared with the other extracts. Total Phenol and flavonoid was also present in the ethanolic extract and fractions; DF having the highest content 59.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 67.20 mg quercetin equivalents/g extract respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that A. vogelii ethanolic root extract and fractions have antioxidant potentials and it may be used for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases including diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Potential Probiotic Characteristics of Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria from Goat Milk

Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Md. Jakir Hasan, Salauddin Al Azad, Md. Giash Uddin, Sayeed Shahriyar, Kanak Jyoti Mondal

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/26397

Probiotics, in point of fact, well-thought-out as the health effective microbial food supplements by fashioning mutuality environment to consumers intestinal gut in an advantageous manner. Goat milk is a broaden source of probiotics in consort with other nutrients. That’s why the focal objective of this study was to insulate probiotic lactic acid bacteria and appraising their potentiality as probiotics. In this study prospective colonies were isolated after pure culture of goat milk sample in MRS media and a series of tests including colonial and morphological observation, catalase test, gram-staining and sugar fermentation were carried out to characterize the bacteria. To scrutinize their probiotic properties, the study was furnished with NaCl, phenol & bile salt tolerance test, milk coagulation test as well as antimicrobial activity test where we witnessed that the isolates were tolerant against 1-6% NaCl, 0.1-0.4% phenol & 0.05-0.3% bile salt, coagulated in milk and only three isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici disclosed anti-microbial activities to think through them as potential probiotics. These potential probiotics obtained from goat milk sample can be used as food supplements in various food biotechnological applications to become an alternative to other milk sources specifically cow milk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Database Analysis of Acidic Proteins from Halophilic Species and Their Corresponding Basic Proteins from Non-halophilic Species

Hiroshi Nakashima, Keiko Homma, Michiko Yamazaki, Masao Ishizaki, Kazuhiro Mawatari

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25207

Aims: To reveal which amino acid residues determine whether a protein is acidic or basic between orthologous pairs, acidic proteins from halophilic species and corresponding basic proteins from non-halophilic species were compared. Similarly acidic versus acidic protein pairs, and basic versus basic protein pairs were also analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Graduate Course of Medical Science and Technology, School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Japan.

Methodology: Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 was used as halophilic species and Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans were used as non-halophilic species. The three species were selected because their proteins were closely related each other. The amino acid compositions were compared and the amino acid substitutions were counted for the orthologous protein pairs between Halobacterium and B. subtilis. Similar comparison was done for the proteins between Halobacterium and D. radiodurans.

Results: The Asp and Glu residues are determinant whether a protein of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is acidic or basic. Amino acid substitutions to increase the Asp residues in the acidic proteins of Halobacterium from the corresponding proteins of non-halophilic species were almost identical whether the corresponding proteins were acidic or basic. This result suggested that the change of protein charges from basic proteins to acidic ones was same as from acidic proteins to acidic ones. The proteins of Halobacterium showed a tendency to have residues with smaller side chain than the proteins of B. subtilis / D. radiodurans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Characterization of Couch Grass (Cynodon dactylon) and Its Growth Promoting Potential on the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-Larvae

Kandaswamy Dhanalakshmi, Periyakali Saravana Bhavan, Gopalan Rajkumar, Virumandi Nathiya, Veeran Srinivasan, Thangavelu Satgurunathan

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/26863

Aim: To study the phytochemical profiles of Cynodon dactylon with three different solvent extractions, such as petroleum ether, acetone and ethanol, and their growth promoting ability on Macrobrachium rosenbergii PL.

Study Design:  Complete extraction of C. dactylon using non-polar, middle polar and polar solvents in order to see the quality of primary phytochemicals present, and the profiles of secondary phytochemical components. Further to see which solvent extraction has effectively promoting the survival, growth, and contents of total protein, carbohydrate and lipid in M. rosenbergii PL.

Methodology: Soxhlet extraction of C. dactylon was made with petroleum ether, acetone and ethanol, and concentrated/condensed by using rotary vacuum evaporator at 40-50°C and then dried at 40°C under hot air oven. These extracts were subjected to qualitative analysis of primary phytochemical substances and GC-MS analysis of secondary phytochemical compounds. Artificial feeds were formulated with incorporation of three solvents extracts of C. dactylon separately at three different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1% levels each). M. rosenbergii PL was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days to assess the survival, growth and basic biochemical constituents.

Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, polyphenols, cardiac glycosides and quinonines in petroleum ether, acetone and ethanolic extracted C. dactylon. GC-MS spectrum of C. dactylon revealed that presence of 19 active principle compounds overall, of which 7 compounds from petroleum ether extracted C. dactylon, 5 compounds from acetone extracted C. dactylon and 7 compounds from ethanolic extracted C. dactylon. Many of the phytochemicals identified are bioactive compounds and possesses biological properties. Incorporations of extractions of C. dactylon at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0% (dry wt.) with artificial feed formulated revealed that among the three solvents extractions, ethanolic extracted C. dactylon incorporated feeds fed M. rosenbergii PL particularly at 1.0% showed enhanced (P < 0.05) growth performance including weight gain (WG), survival rate and contents of basic biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash) of muscle, followed by acetone and petroleum ether when compared with control PL fed without incorporation of C. dactylon.

Conclusion: The primary phytochemicals and secondary bioactive compounds present particularly in ethanolic extracts of C. dactylon produced the best survival, growth, nutritional indices and biochemical constituents in M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, the present work recommends incorporation of 1.0% of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon as feed additive to achieve better survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii PL in the nursery. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Performance and Gene Expression of Drought Stress Tolerance in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

Hesham M. Hamoud, Yasser A. M. Soliman, Samah M. M. Eldemery, Kamal F. Abdellatif

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/26643

Twenty cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadense L. were used to screen the cotton genotypes for drought stress tolerance and to study gene expression of some genes related to cotton tolerance for drought stress. According to the field performance, highly significant genetic differences were found between cotton well-watered and water-stressed treatments as well as among the twenty cotton genotypes. According to Drought Stress Index (DSI), the genotypes “10229”, “Suvin” and “Giza75” were most drought tolerant. Meanwhile, the genotypes “Giza92”, “[Giza84x(Giza70xGiza51B)xs6]” and “Giza93” were the drought moderate tolerant. On the other hand, the most drought susceptible genotype was “Giza85”. The above mentioned genotypes were used to study the gene expression of different genes related to drought stress tolerance in cotton. The gene flowering locus T-like protein 1 (FTL1) and the Gossypium heat shock protein 1 (GHSP1) have been expressed in most genotypes (with different degrees of intensity) except in the pattern of genotype “Giza85” (control and stressed) which suggest that these genes clearly discriminate the drought susceptible cotton genotypes. The general trend of the expression of Lea2A and MFT1 genes was not affected by the drought stress. No discriminate trend was obtained for the genes Lea4 D9a and Lea4 D9b, whereas, different band patterns were noted. It can be said that the most affected genes with drought stress are FTL1 and HSP1 genes and can be used to determine the drought susceptible cotton genotypes.