Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Exogenous ABA on Contents of Lycopene and Endogenous Hormone in Tomato Pericarp

Yang Yu, Qian Weng, Baoli Zhou

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28767

Aims: This research studied the regulatory effect of ABA (Abscisic acid) on the contents of lycopene and endogenous hperipheral pericarp of tomato fruit during ripening, and provided an effective measure for improving the quality of tomato fruits.

Study Design: When the second cluster of toormone in mato fruits reached green mature stage, fruits were labeled and sprayed ABA (100 mg·L-1) over fruit surface, with spaying water as control, avoiding polluting the leaves. After treatment for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20d, 10 fruits were sampled and dissected, peripheral pericarp for measuring the contents of lycopene, GA3 (Gibberellic acid), ABA, ZT (Zeatin) and ETH (Ethylene).

Place and Duration of Study: Horticultural College, between February 2014 and March 2015.

Methodology: The contents of lycopene, GA3, ABA and ZT were determined using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The content of ETH was determined using GC (Gas Chromatography).

Results: The effect of exogenous ABA on the lycopene content in peripheral pericarp of tomato fruits was firstly inhibited then promoted during fruit mature period.  Exogenous ABA decreased the content of endogenous GA3, but the endogenous ABA content was inhibited firstly, and then promoted, inhibited finally, and promoted the content decrease of endogenous ZT. The peak value was appeared early, but a little effect on the amount of ETH release.

Conclusion: This work proved the feasibility of elevating of lycopene levels in tomato fruit by the application of exogenous ABA. ABA promoted the accumulation of lycopene by the decreasing of endogenous GA3, ZT and ABA contents, and by releasing peak appear of endogenous ETH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incorporation of Silver Nanoparticles with Natural Polymers Using Biotechnological and Gamma Irradiation Processes

M. M. Ghorab, A. I. El-Batal, Amro Hanor, Farag M. Abo Mosalam

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25642

Aim: In this study, silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) was synthesized by two processes. Chemical process using natural polymers as citrus pectin (CP), chitosan (Cs) and alginate (Alg) and biological process using aqueous extract of fermented fenugreek by Pleurotus ostreatus (AEFF).

Methodology: Gamma radiation was used to improve reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a chemical process (citrus pectin, chitosan and alginate) and biological process (aqueous extract of fermented fenugreek by Pleurotus ostreatus). Optimization of conditions using general factorial design was performed. AgNPs were further characterized by UV-Visible, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Evaluating the anticancer and antioxidant activities of AgNPs was performed.

Results: chemical and biological processes can reduce the silver ions to AgNPs. The maximum AgNPs produced at condition as follows: 1). Chemical process [CP 1%, metal concentration 1 mM, pH 7, radiation dose 5 kGy, size TEM (26 nm), DLS (32 nm) and anticancer IC50 EAC= 35 µg/ml, CACO=39 µg/ml] and 2). Biological process (Aqueous extract of fermented fenugreek powder, metal concentration 0.5 mM, pH 7, radiation dose 20 kGy, size TEM (12.5 nm) DLS (10.3 nm), anticancer IC50 EAC= 2 µg/ml, CACO= 2.4 µg/ml). The incorporation of AgNPs with natural polymer like CP, Cs, Alg and AEFF increases the antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: Synthesis of AgNPs by biological method (AEFF powder by Pleurotus ostreatus) it’s superior to chemical method (natural polymers as CP, Cs and Alg). AgNPs can be incorporated with natural polymer like CP, Cs, Alg and AEFF; it furthermore, incorporated AgNPs can be used to inhibit the cancer cell and as antioxidant. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Aheli Majumder, Aniruddha Banerji

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/28977

Aims and Study Design: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its phosphorylated form (p-EGFR) in breast carcinomas has been associated with an increase in invasive potential and decreased survival. EGFR mediated signal transduction has been reported to be involved in regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Elevated MMP-2 expression and activity shows significant correlation with increased invasive potential in breast cancer. As MMP-2 plays a crucial role in tumour invasion, the role of EGFR in regulation of MMP-2 expression and activity in breast cancer was studied using the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 as a model.

Methodology: MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured on 1 µg/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) coated culture dishes for 24 hours. Control cells were cultured without EGF. MMP-2 activity was assayed by gelatin zymography. Expression of EGFR, MMP-2, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and phosphorylation of EGFR were assayed by Western blot. Results: When MDA-MB- 231 cells were cultured on EGF, increased activation of MMP-2 and an overall increase in MMP-2 expression and activity was observed. The observed upregulation of MMP-2 was appreciably inhibited if cells were pre-treated with anti-EGFR antibody, thus blocking EGFR. Phosphorylation of EGFR and expression of p38MAPK and FAK were appreciably increased upon culture of cells on EGF.

Conclusion: In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, EGFR-EGF interactions promote activation of MMP-2 and an increase in MMP-2 expression and activity via EGFR mediated signal transduction cascades involving FAK and p38MAPK. As elevated MMP-2 expression and activity correlate with tumour aggressiveness, tumour cell EGF interaction via EGFR might increase the invasive potential of breast cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Maturity and Drying Methods on the Chemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)

J. A. V. Famurewa, G. I. Pele, Y. O. Esan, B. P. Jeremiah

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/25535

This study investigated the effect of maturity and drying methods on some chemical, functional and antioxidant properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) flour. Breadfruit flour was produced from mature and immature breadfruit by hot air oven, sun drying and biomass fuelled dryer at 60°C and the effect of maturity and drying methods on the chemical, functional and antioxidant properties of breadfruit flour were also investigated using standard methods. The results showed that there were significant differences in the properties studied in all the mature and immature samples for all the drying methods. For proximate composition, ascorbic acid, tocopherol, minerals, water absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility and bulk density, matured samples had higher and significant values, while for dispersibility and flavonoid, immature samples had higher and significant values. It was also observed that the chemical properties of breadfruit were significantly retained by air oven drying. It was concluded from the results of this study that for better retention of nutritional qualities of bread fruit flour, oven drying method is better and matured fruits should be used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey and Indexing of Weeds Growing around Potato Fields for Their Role as an Inoculum Source for Potato leafroll virus (PLRV)

Balwinder Singh

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/27801

A survey and indexing studies was carried out on weeds plants growing around potato fields to identify their role as an inoculum source for Potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage samples of 26 weed species were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Out of 783 samples tested, 132 samples showed positive reaction with PLRV antisera. RT-PCR was performed on ELISA positive samples to confirm the results. 110 samples showed amplification of desired band revealing PLRV infection. Weed plants tested positive for PLRV in indexing studies were Amaranthus viridis (4), Chenopodium album (19), Datura stramonium (10), Physalis minima (10), Solanum nigrum (56) and Withania somnifera (12). Results of the study indicated that among the six susceptible weed host plants detected, two weed species (C. album and S. nigrum) were abundantly growing and acting as important host plants and source of PLRV inoculum in potato growing regions of the present study. These weeds were found growing frequently in vacant fields and wastelands along roadsides and railway tracks near potato growing regions. Colonies of green peach aphids responsible for transmission of virus were observed on host plants infected with virus. Eradication of weed host plants from unused/waste lands bordering potato fields would be helpful in effective management of PLRV infection in potato.