Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Input Variables on the Conversion of 5 Ton/h Processed Tomato Juice in a Triple-Effect Evaporator

Mojirade M. Oloruntoba, B. A. Olunlade, F. P. Ibitoye

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2016/29320

Tomato is grown in many regions of the world; and processed tomato products account for 80% of total tomato consumption. A worldwide tomato processing industry has since evolved with a range of technologies which are able to convert tomatoes into products such as paste, sauces and ketchup. Tomato concentrate production can be classified as either Hot Break (HB) process or Cold Break (CB) process. CB process involves chopping the fresh tomato suitable for processing at lower temperatures, ranging from 65 to 75°C, resulting in a less viscous, but slightly better flavoured paste which is mainly used for triple concentrate paste, packed for domestic use. The heated tomato pulp is then conveyed via a special pump to an extraction unit. Two products, the refined juice for concentrate and the waste for disposal come out of the extraction unit. The yield from extractor (about 95%) varies according to the variety of tomatoes treated, pulp’s temperature, type of sieve fitted, the rotation speed, and shape of the rotor on each operating stations. The refined juice is collected and constantly feed to an evaporator from where it passes through different effect(s) where its concentration level is gradually increased until the required concentration is obtained.

This study is aimed at using Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB®) to model a triple-effect evaporator for a 5 ton/h processed tomato juice initially at 5% concentration to 35% tomato paste concentration. The steam economy (SE) was reduced from 3.7 at an interval of 0.4 to study its effect on the outlet tomato paste concentration. Based on some thermodynamic assumptions, the effect of varying some input variables on the output parameters was studied. Other values of SE were later assumed and the process repeated until the desired 35% tomato paste concentration was obtained. The desired concentration was obtained in the third effect when a steam economy of 2.1 was used. With this SE of 2.1, the concentration of tomato paste obtained in first effect is 11%; second effect is 7% while the target concentration of 35% is obtained in the third effect. It was concluded that most of the output parameters, such as tomato paste concentration; water removed; volumetric flow rate; and area decrease with increasing SE; only mass of flow rate increases with increasing SE. Also, the tomato paste concentration increases as the number of effect increases; with a tomato paste concentration of 35% obtained in the third effect. The choice of SE and the number of effects should be properly considered before the design of tomato paste production facility.

Open Access Short Research Article

Amylase Producing Bacteria from Ensete ventricosum (Welw) Cheesman (Ensete) and Their Abilities to Hydrolyse Starch in a Locally Designed Bioreactor

Asefa Niguse, Yohannes Kassaye, Fertuna Shemsedin, Umer Ahmed, Abreham Bekele, Musin Kelel

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2016/29388

Enset is a herbaceous perennial crop used as a basic diet for millions of people at various agro ecological settings of Ethiopia. As it takes up the nutrients from the soil environment, it makes mutual relation with rhizospheric microorganism which can contribute to the discovery of novel potential amylases producing bacteria. The bacteria isolated from enset are considered as an ideal source for the production of bulk extracellular amylase for industrial application. Therefore, starch degrading bacteria in starch rich enset using mini bioreactor was performed to isolate andcharacterize amylase producing bacterial strains. Amylase producing bacilli and Micrococcus species were identified. Based on biochemical tests, three isolates were confirmed as Bacillus badius, Bacillus licheniformis and Micrococcus varians. Effects of temperature, pH, and type of substrate on the activity of amylases producing bacteria were determined. All amylases produced by these isolates were able to hydrolyze starch after 48 hrs of fermentation. Bacillus licheniformis and Micrococcus varians were able to grow up to 50°C, whilst Bacillus badius was able to grow up to 80°C. Though, all isolates were able to grow from 4-9 pH values, the pH of 6 was found to be optimum for Bacillus badius, while pH of 7 was an optimum for remaining isolates. Findings from this research work has shown that bacterial isolates from Enset with thermophilic, and alkalophilic characteristics have wide range potential for industrial applications and need to be further optimized for efficient use.

Open Access Short Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of α –Amyrin from Stem Bark of Ficus exasperata (Vahl)

L. A. Nnamonu, T. A. Tor-Anyiin, N. O. Ugbenyo, J. V. Anyam

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2016/29737

Aims: Isolate and characterize compounds from the ethyl acetate stem bark extract of Ficus exasperata.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Centre for Agrochemical Technology, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria; Herbarium of the Department of Biological sciences and Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Services of Institute of Leather Research, Zaria, between May 2013 and December 2015.

Methodology: Microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract the stem bark of Ficus exasperata using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Vacuum Liquid Chromatography was used for isolation from ethyl acetate extract. Proton and Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy were used for characterization.

Results: Vacuum Liquid Chromatography of ethyl acetate crude extract gave rise to fraction N-8, a white amorphous solid a with melting point range of 225-227°C. Proton and Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra data of N-8 was consistent with those published for α-amyrin acetate.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of isolation of α-amyrin acetate from the plant Ficus exasperata. Alpha-amyrin acetate has been implicated in a number of studies as having broad spectrum activity against a lot of ails and may well be the leading principle behind Ficus exasperata’s various ethnomedicinal applications.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Screening of EST-SSR Markers Associated with Peel Color in Tomato Fruit

Na Cui, Jiayu Yao, Yicong Shang, Tongtong Zhang, Shuyu Pang, Yang Yu, Haiyan Fan

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2016/29881

Aims: The color of tomato fruit is an important property in improving of tomato breed. So we screened the differences of yellow tomato peel and transparent tomato peel using EST-SSR markers, and it is in favour of the research of the tomato fruit color and tomato breeding.

Study Design: Primers were designed from ESTs in which the repeat bases of SSR were more than 18bp, then tested in yellow peel and transparent peel of gene pools built by F2 from E-95F8(♀) and Zhonghuajufeng8(♂).

Place and Duration of Study: College of Biological Science and Technology, between February 2015 and March 2016.

Methodology: The yellow peel gene pool and the transparent peel gene pool were built according to the trait segregation group of F2, and then screened the differential bands by the primers. In the end, the differential bands were tested in the segregation group of F2.

Results: 250 primer pairs were designed. One (HML52) of 250 primer pairs had diversity between yellow peel and transparent peel of gene pools built by F2 from E-95F8(♀) and Zhonghuajufeng8(♂). In the end, the primer pair of HML52 passed test, and genetic distance was 7.04 cM.

Conclusion: The primer pair of HML52 of EST-SSR marker associated with peel color in tomato was found in this study, and the genetic distance of the primer pair was 7.04 cM.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Organic Extracts from North-West Moroccan Medicinal Plant Myrtus communis (L.)

Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Jamal Abrini, El Ouardy Khay, Saoulajan Charfi, Nadia Boujida, Abdeltif EL Harsal, Ahmed Talbaoui, Abdeslam ET-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Nadia Dakka

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2016/28500

Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extract from the leaves of Myrtus communis (L.) growing in North-West of Morocco.

Study Design: In vitro evaluating of antibacterial activity and determination of total phenols and flavonoids content of extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology (Faculty of Sciences), between July 2015 and November 2015.

Methodology: The total phenol content and flavonoids content of methanol, ethanol, ethyl-acetate and n-hexane extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method and Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method respectively. The antibacterial activity of extracts was tested against five reference strains, Escherichia coli K12 MBLA, Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b CECT 4032 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IH using the agar well diffusion method and the micro-dilution assays.

Results: The amount of the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content ranged between 86,31-137,46 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g) and 14,31±1,09–31,24 quercetin equivalents (QE mg/g) of dry weight of extract, respectively. All extracts had a significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. The biggest zones of inhibition were observed against two positive bacteria (L. monocytogenes, S. aureus). While, Gram negative bacteria (E. coli K12,               P. aeruginosa) had showed to be resistant toward extracts.

Conclusion: Considering these results, M. communis leaves can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.