Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Regeneration Studies in Euphorbia fusiformis through Somatic Embryo Genesis

Devaraju Srinivas, K. Jaganmohan Reddy

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/20101

Euphorbia fusiformis is a rare medicinal plant. The genus Euphorbia belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. E. fusiformis is commercially useful for production of latex and has many medicinal values. Based on the importance of the plant, it is selected for plant tissue culture work. The present research work is to establish somatic embryogenesis from explants of leaf. It is first attempt of the regeneration studies in E. fusiformis through somatic embryogenesis. For plantlet regeneration studies MS medium supplemented with α- Naphthlene Acetic Acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/L and 2, 4- Dichloro Phenoxy acetic acid ( 2,4- D ) 2.0 mg/L. were used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Bacillus cereus Symbiotic to Hemi-parasitic Plant Santalum album L.

Siuli Batabyal, Priyanka Mukhopadhyay, Soumendranath Chatterjee, Jagatpati Tah, Nimai Chandra Saha

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/29582

Aims: Santalum album L., known as sandalwood plant (white sandal) belongs to the family Santalaceae, is characteristically a hemi-parasite that requires host plant in the early stages for the better growth and development. Besides its extreme economic importance, significant work has not been done to reveal the relationship of beneficial microorganisms with these plants for their better growth and development. Present investigation is an attempt to isolate and characterize the rhizospheric soil bacteria of Santalum album L. occurring in some areas of Bankura district of West Bengal, India.

Methodology: The microbial colonies in the soils were estimated as colony forming units (cfu/g dr.soil) from plates prepared by different medium. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characters of the bacteria were studied following standard methods. The physico-chemical parameters, and microbial population was determined on the rhizospheric soil of the hemiparasitic sandalwood plant Santalum album Linn. occurring at four locations of Bankura district in West Bengal, India.

Results: The population diversity of cultivable heterotrophic, Gram negative, nitrifying, phosphate solubilizing, starch hydrolyzing, spore forming bacteria were higher at Hirbandh with higher organic carbon level than other three locations. Bacterial population was comparatively lower in Basudevpur due to lower water holding capacity. One spore forming bacterium (SW1) was isolated from Hirbandh soil. The isolate (SW1) was characterized by phenotypic properties, scanning electron microscopy, biochemical properties, analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and 16S rRNA gene sequence and identified as Bacillus cereus (KT626448) which branched with Bacillus cereus BSFN12r (KM405329) with 100% bootstrap support.

Conclusion: Present investigation is an attempt to isolate and characterize the rhizospheric soil bacteria from economically important plant Santalum album L. Further studies may find out the positive role of the symbiotic association of Bacillus cereus (SW1) with the root of S. album as a key factor for the better growth and development of this economically important plant occurring in Bankura district, West Bengal, India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Anaerobic Bacteria Strains from Discarded Ruminal Contents of Nigerian Breed Cattle and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Suitability for Animal Feedstuff

J. B. Habu, I. S. Ndams, P. A. Wuyep, B. O. Ibeh, J. B. Ameh

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/26921

Aim: The study aimed at isolation and preliminary characterization of anaerobic bacteria from a special crossbreed of Muturu and N’Dama cattle found in parts of Nigeria.

Study Design: The work investigated the suitability of the isolates in in vitro fermentation of biomass and evaluated the relationship between the bacterial flora and their ability to hydrolyse lignocellulosic materials from corn stover and rice straw as an indication of their potential application in animal feedstuff.

Place and Duration of Study: Ahmadu Bello University,Zaria, Nigeria between 2011 and 2013.

Methodology: Authentic isolate confirmation was done using AP120A isolation technique while bacterial enzyme quantification was by real time PCR. The substrate was digested in vitro, and Hungate roll tube technique employed for bacterial culturing.

Results: Isolates confirmation revealed Actinomyces naeslundii, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Clostridium polysaccharolyticum. The mean colony counts were elevated in all the media culture used which further showed significant (P<0.05) difference between rumen fluid medium and medium 10 in Fusobacterium and Clostridium species, indicating a more suitable medium for bacterial culture. Corn stover gave significant biogas volume in the order, corn stover>rice straw> mineral solution.  Similarly, the potential ability of the bacteria to produce biogas decreased as follows, Fusobacterium necrophorum >Clostridium parasaccharolyticum>Actinomyces naeslundii. PCR quantification revealed a 5500 bp gene indicating alcohol dehydrogenase.

Conclusion: The rumen of this breed contains useful bacteria species with increased capacity to degrade agricultural waste (biomass) for biogas production and with higher digestibility efficiency that can be employed in feedstuff production. Additionally, Fusobacterium necrophorum produced higher biogas using corn stover as the optimum yielding biomaterial.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Components and Antibacterial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn. Extracts against Some Pathogens

Olarinke Victoria Adeniyi, Flora E. Olaifa, B. O. Emikpe, S. T. Ogunbanwo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/30618

Aim: To determine the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial properties of tamarind extracts on some aquatic pathogenic bacteria.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Animal Production, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria, between August 2014 and April, 2015.

Methodology: The phytochemical constituents in ordinary, warm and hot water as well as ethanol extracts of tamarind seed coat, pulp and leaves were screened. The Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) diameter (mm), Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) against some aquatic pathogenic bacteria were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at P = .05.

Results: The result revealed presence of reducing sugar, flavonoid, saponin and terpenoids in all tamarind extracts. The synthetic antibiotics used had significantly higher ZOI than the tamarind extracts for all the test organisms. Tamarind pulp hot water extract significantly inhibited Aeromonas hydrophila and Hafnia alvei than other extracts while the leaf warm water extracts had significantly higher zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas putida. The best MIC was obtained for oxytetracycline and erythromycin against Enterobacter gergovia and Escherichia coli respectively. Pulp extracts and erythromycin exhibited the same MIC, 2.56 mg/ml, for Bacillus subtilis and H. alvei while the former had lower MIC (2.56 mg/ml) against Salmonella typhi than the MIC (5.12 mg/ml) of the later. Oxytetracycline and tamarind extracts also demonstrated the same MIC (2.56 mg/ml) against S. typhi. Pulp extracts exhibited MBC for most of the test organisms.

Conclusion: Warm tamarind leaf and hot tamarind pulp aqueous extracts demonstrated better antimicrobial activities against some bacteria used in this study and hence the extracts could be used to control such microbes associated with the aquatic environment and fish products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effects of Drying Methods on Phytochemicals in Thevetia neriifolia Parts as a Potential Rodenticide

O. O. Fayinminnu, O. A. Ogunwole, T. A. Gbemilade

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/29739

Synthetic rodenticides are effective and rapid in controlling rats; however, they are toxic to non-target species including humans, as well as the environment. Thevetia neriifolia (Pers.) K. Schum different parts however, reportedly have toxic effects on rodents. Effects of fresh, air and sun-drying methods on phyto-constituents of flowers, leaves, root, seed and stem bark and its potentiality in the control of rodents were therefore, investigated in this study. Analyses showed the presence of free agyclones: Thevetin A (1.88 mg/g) and B (1.64 mg/g), cardiac glycosides (1.49 mg/g), alkaloid (1.36%) and digitoxin (1.32 mg/g) in highest concentrations. Phenols (6.90x10-2 mg/g), (2.21x           10-2 mg/g) from flavonoids, Tannins (1.13x10-2 mg/g) and steroids (6.70x10-3 mg/g) were in moderate concentrations while antraquinone (0.70x10-3 mg/g) was the lowest. Antraquinone            was also not detected in flower parts. Sun-dried parts had highest concentrations of Thevetin A (1.47 mg/g), cardiac glycosides (1.39 mg/g) and Thevetin B (1.27 mg/g), followed by air–drying           for cardiac glycoside (1.33 mg/g) and Thevetin A. fresh for Thevetins A (1.25 mg/g), and B            (1.10 mg/g), and cardiac glycoside (0.93 mg/g) and tannins, respectively while antraquinone and terpenes were undetected. Higher phytochemicals content were in leaf followed by stem bark, then air-drying due to interaction of sun-drying methods and parts of plant. Free aglycones, Thevetins A and B, cardiac glycosides, digitoxin, oleadrin, tannins, phenols and steroids in Thevetia neriifolia plant parts were not affected by different drying methods. Therefore, the relatively high cardiac glycosides and free aglycone in different parts of Thevetia neriifolia may be exploited for natural rodenticidal purpose.