Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Quality Characteristics of White Maize Ogi Flour Enriched with Moringa oleifera Seed

Oluwatoyin A. Oladeji, Kehinde A. Taiwo, Mofoluwake M. Ishola, Babatunde S. Oladeji

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/32483

Aim: Aim is to investigate the effect of boiling and fermentation of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seed on nutritional quality of enriched maize ogi flour.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife, Nigeria, between May-December, 2014.

Methodology: Raw and treated M. oleifera seed were wet milled together with fermented maize in the ratio 80:20 and sieved to obtain enriched ogi slurry. The slurry was dewatered, dried and milled to obtain ogi flour. Ogi prepared from 100% maize was used as control.

Results: The results showed significant increase (P=0.05) in protein (9.73 - 10.77%), ash (0.67 - 0.91%), and fat (10.84 - 12.34%) contents of the enriched products as compared with control (6.58, 0.53, and 5.05% for protein, ash and fat respectively). Fermentation and boiling of the seed reduced the fat content but boiling indicated the highest protein content while fermentation         resulted in highest ash content. Fermentation improved P, Ca, Na and Fe (195.60, 21.80, 31.35 and 4.57 mg/100g) content of the enriched ogi. Results of sensory evaluation showed that sample with fermented M. oleifera seed was not significantly different (P=0.05) from the control.

Conclusion: The study shows that enriching white maize ogi with M. oleifera seed improves nutrients quality while fermentation and boiling lower the antinutritional factors without adverse effect on sensory attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Study and Alpha-amylase Inhibitory Properties of Leaf Extracts of Croton zambesicus (Müll. Arg.)

Seide M. Akoro, Cecilia O. Ogundare, Olushola R. Oladipupo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/32441

Aims: This study was designed to determine the phytochemical contents, percentage of alkaloids and flavonoids and also to determine the alpha-amylase inhibitory properties of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the leaves of Croton zambesicus (Müll. Arg.) in-vitro

Study Design: Phytochemical Screening, determination of percentage alkaloids and flavonoids and in-vitro evaluation of alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the leaf extracts.

Place and Duration: This work was carried out in the Chemistry Laboratory of the Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Chemistry Unit), School of Pure and Applied Science, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu and the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria, between March and November, 2016.

Methodology: Croton zambesicus leaves was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol by maceration to obtain the respective extracts. Phytochemical screening of the extracts for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, saponins, flavanoids, anthraqiunones and reducing sugar was carried out using standard method. The percentage of alkaloids and flavonoids was determined using Harborne and Boham and Kocipaiabyazan methods respectively. Alpha-amylase inhibitory properties of the leaf extracts were carried in-vitro qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay and then quantified using dinitrosalicyclic acid reagent (DNSA reagent) using acarbose as the standard.

Results: The results showed alkaloids, cardiac glycosides steroids and antraquinone derivatives were detected in all the extracts while tannins, saponins and flavonoids were detected only in the ethanol extract. The percentage of alkaloids and flavonoids in the Croton zambesicus leaf are 16.67±3.06% and 2.67±1.16% respectively. Starch iodide indicator indicated a positive Alpha-amylase inhibitory properties in the hexane and the ethanol extracts. The ethanol extract exhibited the most alpha-amylase inhibitory property (IC50= 78.7 ± 1.7) followed by the hexane extract (IC50= 89.2 ± 1.1) while the lowest was observed in the standard drug, acarbose (IC50= 114.9 ± 11.3).

Conclusion: The result of this study showed Croton zambesicus leaf extracts can effectively inhibit pancreatic alpha-amylase hence could be a source of new drugs for reducing post-prandial glucose level in diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Potential of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Aspergillus niger

Emad J. Ibrahem, Karkaz M. Thalij, Amin S. Badawy

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/29534

A total of 280 urinary tract infection samples were collected in this investigation. Out of them 212(75.7%) samples showed a positive bacterial isolates. Morphological, cultural and biochemical testes were confirmed using VITEK 2 System. Its revealed that 54 (30.2%) of the bacterial isolates were gram positive and 158 (69.8%) gram negative. The bacterial isolates were distributed as Escherichia coli 96 (45.2%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 48 (22.6%), Staphylococcus aureus 43(20.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 14 (6.6%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis 11 (5.2%). The synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) was performed using Aspergillus niger Method. Agar Wells Diffusion Method was applied for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against gram positive S. aureus, and gram negative                   P. aeruginosa bacteria isolated from Urine tracts infection (UTI). The results showed that the biosynthesized MgO NPs appeared to be an extracellular with a size range of 43-91 nm as confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy for the absorbance band at 256.5 nm. Besides, MgO NPs were found to be an effective antibacterial agent against Gram positive S. aureus, and the zone inhibition diameter at 27 mm. Howover, the zone inhibition diameter against gram negative P. aeruginosa bacteria was at 24 mm, compared with inhibition effects of ciprofloxacin antibiotics at 24 and 20 mm, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer on Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Populations during Early Growth of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris

E. C. Chinakwe, E. O. Egbadon, M. C. Ofoh, O. Ojibe, C. Onyeji-Jarret, M. C. Emeakaroha, N. U. Nwogwugwu, P. O. Chinakwe

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/27728

Aims: The study assessed the effects of different regimen of inorganic fertilizers on the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere soil of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris during early growth.

Study Design: Seeds of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris were planted and Inorganic fertilizers were added to the soil after two weeks of planting to determine their effects on the microbial structure as well as the microbial succession pattern in the rhizosphere soils of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris during early growth. Statistical analysis were carried out using a two-way ANOVA.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the farmland of School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri Nigeria for a period of five weeks.

Methodology: Seeds of Zea mays and Phaseoulus vulgaris were planted in a soil under laboratory condition and different regimen of inorganic fertilizers added after two weeks using the placement method of fertilizer application, and a control experiment maintained without addition of fertilizers. Rhizosphere soil from Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris were collected every week for the remaining weeks for microbiological analysis to determine the microbial community and microbial populations present in the soil.

Results: In this study the presence of Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Rhizobium sp, were evident in the rhizosphere soil of both Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris all through the five week period of study. The fungal community structure revealed the presence of Saccharomyces sp, Fusarium and Penicilium notatum for Zea mays rhizosphere soil, while Phaseolus vulgaris rhizosphere soil had Saccharomyces sp, Streptomyces sp, Fusarium and Penicilium notatum. The microbial succession pattern revealed that Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Rhizobium sp and Saccharomyces sp were mostly predominant in the rhizosphere soil of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris all through the period of study.

Conclusion: The results from this study revealed that inorganic fertilizers had significant effect on the microbial community structure present in the rhizosphere soil of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris during early growth when compared to the control without inorganic fertilizer. This result suggests that the increased microbial community in rhizosphere soil of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris resulted from increased biological interaction in the soils between the roots of plants, microorganisms and the inorganic fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of BAP and IBA on in vitro Regeneration of Local Banana Variety of Sabri

Fahima Khatun, M. E. Hoque, Homayra Huq, Md. Adil, Kh. Ashraf-Uz-Zaman, Mominul Haque Rabin

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/31592

The experiment was carried out to study the effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg/L) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/L) for in vitro regeneration of sabri variety of Banana using shoot tip explants. Highest response of explants (84%) and maximum number of shoots per explant (3.4) were observed with 5.0 mg/L BAP in sabri. In contrast, due to combined effect, 5.0 mg/L BAP+2.5 mg/L IBA showed best response (90%). The highest shoot number per explant (3.4) was found with 5.0 mg/L BAP+2.0 mg/L IBA. The maximum number of roots (3.4 and 5.2) was observed in 1.5 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L BAP+1.0 mg/L of IBA. In controlled environment, the regenerated healthy rooted plantlets were transferred from culture media to soil in plastic pots where 90% plantlets were survived and in open atmosphere, the survival rate was 88.89%. This protocol has the applicability in vitro rapid propagation of Banana.