Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ad-libitum, Split and Restricted Feeding on Performance, Digestibility and Welfare of Broiler Chickens

G. O. Adeyemo, R. T. Badmus, O. G. Longe, A. D. Ologhobo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/32760

An experiment was conducted to assess the performance, welfare and digestibility of broilers fed varying forms of feeding regimes. The objective of this work research was investigate the possibility of improving growth performances, digestibility and welfare of broilers using ad libitum, split and restricted feeding.

Formulated diet was given in four different forms Ad-libitum (Treatment 1) twice a day meal/split feeding (Treatment 2) thrice a day feeding (Treatment 3) 3 hours restriction feeding (Treatment 4). Experimental design was completely randomized design. 240 broilers were randomly allotted to four treatments with 6 replicates and 10 birds per replicate. Birds were weighed weekly to evaluate their performances, faeces was collected on day 42, to determine digestibility and rectal temperature was taken as a measure of bird’s wellbeing.

Results showed that there were no significant differences (p≥ 0.05) in performance of birds across treatments but values from birds fed Ad-libitum were higher. Rectal temperature (RT) differ at week 4, birds fed 3 hours restricted feeding had the highest RT (41.62°C) while the least RT were from birds fed Ad-libitum (41.20°C). Significant differences were obtained in digestibility and nutrient utilization of broilers with respect to feeding regimes. Crude protein (CP) digestibility was significantly higher in birds fed 3 hours restriction (81.91%) while birds fed Ad-libitum had the least (46.76%). The digestibility of crude fibre was higher in birds fed 3 hours restricted feeding regime (86.77%) the least was from birds fed thrice a day feeding regime (62.66%). A similar trend was obtained for digestibility of gross energy.

Ad-libitum feeding had the highest non-significant performance values but split feeding optimized feed and nutrient utilization thereby enhancing performance and minimizing nutrient waste at the same time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Analysis of Porridges Processed from Flours of Palmyra New Shoots Enriched with Powders of Moringa oleifera Leaflets and Vigna unguiculata Beans

Mahan Makado Romuald, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Sidibe Daouda, Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Coulibaly Adama, Ezoua Pierre, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/33076

The current study focuses on the sensory properties of fifteen (15) composite porridges processed from flour of new shoots tubers of Borassus aethiopum Mart basis. The composite flours were processed from mixture of various ratios of B. aethiopum flour (BAM) and powders of beans of Vigna unguiculata (VUW) and leaflets of Moringa oleifera (MOL). Sensory analyses were performed to reveal the descriptive profile regarding four (04) sensory parameters, namely aroma, flavour, appearance, and texture, and then the general acceptance of the porridges. Thus, the sensory profile of the studied composite flour porridges was determined against two control flours (ET1 and ET2). Then, the general acceptance was probed with two of the composite flours highlighting better sensory profiles, and then compared to both control flours. From the sensory description of the studied porridges, the samples EF07 (57% BAM, 26% VUW, and 17% MOL) and EE09 (61% BAM, 24% VUW, and 15% MOL) provided higher sweet flavour (4.27 and 4.07/9), agreeable aroma (6.67 and 6.47/9), and fluid texture (6.27 and 5.53/9), and revealed lower bitter taste (1.73 and 1.80/9). Besides, composite flours porridges EF07 and EE09 were accepted by 86% and 82% persons including 46% and 24% full acceptance, respectively. Oppositely to the composite flours porridges containing no substantial ingredient, the control porridges (ET1 and ET2) recorded 100% acceptation by panelists. The formulations of composite flours with B. aethiopum Mart new shoots basis could be more accepted as food after addition of additives such as sugar, milk and natural aromas. Such processing could result in better promotion of this plant species culture for the biodiversity preservation and generating significant incomes for farmers in rural zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced Protocol Development for in vitro Multiplication and Rooting of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andr.) Clone (Van.2/05)

Yilkal Bezie Ayele, Wondyifraw Tefera, Kassahun Bantte

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/33726

Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andr.) is a multipurpose spice in the world. The crop had been introduced to Ethiopia from Mauritius and it is still under maintenance at the Tepi National Spices Research Center (TNSRC). It is commonly propagated through stem cuttings which could arrests subsequent plant growth and development and serves as an ideal means for the spread of varied diseases. To solve the mentioned problems, no efficient in vitro protocol had so far been developed to propagate this vanilla clone in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was initiated to address this gap by developing efficient protocol for the enhanced multiplication of this accession (Van.2/05). In this study plant material was taken from TNSRC. The experiments were carried out in Jimma Agricultural Research Center (JARC) at Biotechnology Laboratory. Nodal explants and Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962), basal medium were used exclusively throughout the experiments. The experiments were laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with factorial treatment combinations and replicated three times for plant growth regulator (PGR) assisted experiments. In the study, shoot multiplication, the combined use of 2 mg l-1 6-Benzylamino Purine (BAP) and 0.5 mg l-1 Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was proved to be the best providing the highest shoot mean number (5.33) and length (4.9 cm) of shoots after five weeks of culture. The combined use of different MS basal medium strengths and Indol -3-Acetic Acid (IAA) concentrations were employed. Therefore, ½ MS strength combined with 0.5 mg l-1IAA produced mean number of 4.00 roots per plantlet with mean length of 6.1cm. The average rate of ex-vitro survival was 83.4%. Therefore, the advent of this protocol could have considerable value to enhance the expansion of vanilla cultivation in Ethiopia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Effect of Temperature on Proximate Analysis and Mineral Composition of Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Ebele J. Ajagun, Jane A. Angalapele, Priscillia N. Nwaiwu, Mutiu A. Alabi, Joy A. Oladimeji-Salami, Uduak Amba

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/33999

Aims: To investigate the phytochemical composition and effect of temperature on the proximate and mineral composition of Zingiber officinale.

Study Design: Activity directed phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and mineral composition investigation of Z. officinale rhizomes using in vitro methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Medicinal Plants Section, Bioresources Development Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between May and November, 2016.

Methodology: Fresh rhizome of Z. officinale was milled, extracted with absolute ethanol and screened for phytochemicals. Proximate and mineral analyses were carried out at various temperatures; room temperature (28°C; control), 40, 50 and 60°C.

Results: Phytochemicals including; alkaloid, tannins, saponins and cardiacglycosides were present in the rhizomes. The results showed significant (P< 0.05) decrease in the percentage of crude protein (9.53±0.04) at 60°C when compared with room temperature; control (9.62±0.04), increase in crude fiber and ash at 40°C (8.31±0.02 and 6.76±0.02 respectively) and 60°C (8.34±0.03 and 6.77±0.02 respectively) when compared with the control (8.28±0.15 and 6.74±0.01 respectively). The results also showed a significant (P< 0.05) decrease in the percentage of sodium (0.057±0.001 and 0.061±0.001) at 40 and 60°C respectively when compared with the control (0.064±0.002); potassium (1.65±0.01) at 40°C when compared with the control (1.73±0.02); magnesium and calcium at 40°C (0.197±0.002 and 0.083±0.001 respectively) when compared with the control (0.203±0.005 and 0.087±0.001 respectively).

Conclusion: The current study showed that drying at above room temperature does not affect the proximate and mineral composition of Z. officinale rhizomes. The presence of nutrients and phytochemicals in Z. officinale could be exploited for the overall well-being of man.

Open Access Original Research Article

Charge Transference Detection through Cyclic Voltammograms in the Interaction of Cratylia mollis Seed Lectin-carbohydrate Inhibitor

Sandra Rodrigues de Souza, Edilson Gomes de Santana, José Edson Gomes de Souza, Priscila Marcelino dos Santos Silva, Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJI/2017/32672

Aims: To evaluate the charge transference and the electrochemical potential of Cratylia mollis seed lectin, Cramoll 1,4, adsorbed on Nafion beads after the interaction of glucose ligand.

Study Design: Based on detection of electrochemical currents and potentials of Cramoll 1,4 by electrochemical techniques.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Pernambuco, between April 2014 and November 2015.

Methodology: Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) was performed in an electrochemical cell containing three electrodes (a calomel electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode and a platinum electrode), connected to a potentiostat to obtain electrochemical currents related to the charge transference. An electrochemical cell containing a calomel electrode and a platinum electrode coupled to a multimeter was used to register the potentials. A saline solution was used as support to control the charge distribution inside of the cell. Cramoll 1,4-glucose interaction was evaluated in the concentration of 100, 200 and 300 mM of glucose.

Results: CV measurements showed significant charge transference after Cramoll 1,4-glucose interaction. Cathodic and anodic peaks paired near 100 mV were detected in the range 100-300 mM glucose, achieving a maximum current response of 1300 μA, approximately. Positive electrochemical potentials of Cramoll 1,4 adsorbed to Nafion-beads was achieved showing a linear behaviour with the increase of glucose concentration at 300 mM.   

Conclusion: The system is useful for characterization of lectin-carbohydrate interactions and as a glucose sensor to estimate the activity of lectins.