Open Access Short Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Snake Venom, Naja naja from Bangladesh

Md. Abdul Hakim, M. A. Reza

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18374

Aim: Snake venom is a source of antimicrobial peptides. Composition as well as activities of venom may vary based on geographic region and notably the antimicrobial activity of the venom of Naja naja from Bangladesh has not yet been tested. Thus, in this study, investigated the antibacterial activity of the venom of snake Naja naja from Bangladesh against two bacterial strains.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in protein science laboratory, Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, between July 2012 to December 2012.

Methods: Luria agar medium was used to culture the E. coli and B. thuringiensis strains of bacteria. Disc diffusion method was used to carry out the test of antibacterial sensitivity. Discs prepared by Whatman No. 1 filter paper were soaked with different doses (25, 50, 75 and 100 µg) of crude venom and placed on the cultured bacterial plates along with two standard antimicrobial antibiotic discs. After overnight incubation at 37ºC, antibacterial activity of venom was measured by inhibition zone observed around the discs in the plates.

Results: Application of 75 and 100 µg of crude venom showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, whereas only 100 µg crude venom showed little antibacterial activity against B. thuringiensis.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the crude venom of Naja naja may contain some proteins responsible for antibacterial activity and the quantity of antibacterial peptides might be lower in venom than other components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-tumor Effect of Calloselasma rhodostoma Venom on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

Yap Fei Ling, Archana Singh Sikarwar, Yee Yoon Yi

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18873

Aim: Breast cancer is a major health issue for women worldwide. The potential anti-tumor effect of snake venom, has been studied and evidences showed reducing tumor size and inhibition of angiogenesis. Present study aims to study the antitumor effect of Calloselasma rhodostoma venom on MDA-MB-231 cells.

Methods: The morphological changes of venom-treated MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A cells in various incubation time were studied. Cytotoxicity of the venom on both cell lines were determined using Cytotoxicity 96® Non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay.

Results: Based on the morphology study and cytotoxicity assay study, MDA-MB-231 cells were killed at venom concentration of 10 µg/ml, started at 12 h post treatment and significant killing dose at venom concentration of 20 µg/ml. Cell morphology study of MCF-10A showed that the cells were also killed at venom concentration of 10 µg/ml, started at 12 h post. However, viable MCF-10A cells were observed 48 h post treatment.

Conclusion: C. rhodostoma venom can kills both non-tumorgenic breast cells MCF-10A and tumorgenic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. However, the venom kills MDA-MB-231 cells at lower concentration than MCF-10A cells. More studies are needed to study antitumor effect of the venom.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Properties of Fermented Kolanut husk and Testa of Three Species of Kolanut: Cola acuminata, Cola nitida and Cola verticillata

T. B. Fabunmi, D. J. Arotupin

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18443

Excessive free radicals in the body system are known to cause oxidative stress, resulting in some pathological conditions which are fast becoming a challenge that needs urgent attention. Plants are known to be good sources of antioxidants that have the potential of scavenging for free radicals in the body system. In a bid to find solution to the challenge of oxidative stress, three species of kolanut were analysed in this study for their antioxidant properties. The husk and testa of three species of kolanut (Cola acuminata, Cola nitida and Cola verticillata) were subjected to liquid and solid state fermentation for 10 days, after which it was dried, grounded and analysed. The effect of fermentation was checked quantitatively, comparing the antioxidant properties of the fermented and unfermented (control) samples. Radical scavenging ability (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Property (FRAP), Iron chelation, vitamin C, phenol and flavonoid were determined. The values obtained for the husk and testa of fermented and unfermented (control) samples were within the range of 0.210 to 1.17 mg/g for FRAP, 1.120 to 4.700 mg/g for phenol, 55.740 to 70.230% for DPPH, 0.263 to 1.577 mg/g for flavonoid, 88.410 to 97.733% for iron chelation, while that of vitamin C ranged between 1.913 to 4.633 mg/g respectively. The fermented samples had higher antioxidant properties for DPPH, phenol, Iron chelation and vitamin C than unfermented samples. This study has established the fact that the husk and testa of the kolanut species has antioxidant properties and thus can exert several beneficial effects by virtue of these properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Preliminary Phylogenetic Analysis and Comparative Study on the Molecular and Conventional Identities of Bacteria Isolated from Typhoid Fever Patients Attending Some Hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria

B. E. Boboye, O. E. Ajayi, O. F. Olukunle

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/17275

Aim: This study aimed at determining the molecular and conventional identities of bacteria associated with presumptive typhoid fever patients in Ondo State, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study attempted a comparative study of the conventional and molecular identities of bacteria isolated from presumptively diagnosed typhoid patients.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in three different hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria viz; State Specialists’ Hospital, Akure, Don Bosco Clinic, Akure and Federal Medical Centre, Owo, between February and May, 2013.

Methodology: A total of 520 blood samples were collected from presumptively diagnosed typhoid fever patients attending Don Bosco Clinic Akure, Federal Medical Center, Owo and State Specialists’ Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The samples were screened for the presence of Salmonella typhi and other co-existing bacteria through blood culture. Initial identification of the isolates was carried using their culture morphology, Gram stain and biochemical tests, while their identities were verified using molecular techniques like PCR analysis, gene sequencing and blasting. The genetic relatedness of the bacterial isolates was investigated by constructing a phylogenetic tree using neighbor-joining (NJ) method.

Results: The traditional identities of the bacteria were Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while their molecular identities were Enterobacter cloacae, Shigella flexneri, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Bacterium species clone BAO 14, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Most of the isolates fell within the same clade on the phylogenetic tree signifying that they had a common ancestor.

Conclusion: Molecular biology techniques are more reliable, sensitive and accurate for bacterial identification than the conventional methods.

Open Access Review Article

Biomass Pre-treatment Methods and Their Economic Viability for Efficient Production of Biofuel

Shivani Bhagwat, Supriya Ratnaparkhe, Anil Kumar

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18284

Development of sustainable technology for bioenergy/biofuel generation using lignocellulosic biomass is of prime importance in the present day research. An economically viable technology for production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass will certainly provide opportunity to the non-oil producing countries to refrain from deprivation of fuel and explore the concept of bio-refineries for complete utilization of the feedstock. Biomass feedstock is abundant in the form of network of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and hence the name lignocellulose. The structure and composition of lignocellulosic biomass is a major hindrance in its complete digestibility into fermentable monomer sugars. Reports are in the literature indicating that pre-treatment of biomass from wood and grasses can increase the yield of sugars upto 90%. Here, we have reviewed various technologies and methods for the pre-treatment of biomass with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages with respect to the production of biofuel. Also, capital expense (CAPEX) and operational expense (OPEX) is considered to assess the economic viability of the technology.