Open Access Original Research Article

Processing and Quality of “red kapsiki” an Opaque Beer from “Mandara” Mountain in Cameroon

Bayoi James, Djoulde Darman Roger, Aboubakar Dandjouma, Essia- Ngang Jean Justin, François- Xavier Etoa

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18919

Aims: Mandara is a chain of Mountains located in northern Cameroun with the border of the republic of Nigeria. This area is populated by “kapsiki” an indigenous populations living. This non moslem population is brewing an opaque beer, which has both a symbolic and nutritional. This paper aims at investigating the physicochemical and microbial quality of this beer and highlights its processing.

Study Design: The study design used for describing processing method is cluster sampling of the cities surveyed, production sites and markets, and at the secondary level, individuals and groups of individual respondents.

Place and Duration of Study: In order to describe and follow the production process, a survey was conducted in three kapsiki rural villages of Cameroon, namely Rhumsiki, Rhumzu and Mogodé. Later on, some samples from two urban town close to the area of Mokolo.

Methodology: To describe and follow the production process, a survey on the basis of a questionnaire was conducted. The sample pH, conductivity, density and brix, were recorded onsite using portables devices (conductimeter, densitometer and brixmeter).

Laboratory experiment: Following parameters: titrable acidity, polyphenols, ethanol, specific gravity,viscosity was determined according to accredited methods. Microbial analysis focused on total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Shigella, yeasts, molds and sulphite‐reducing clostridia were evaluated.

Results: The "red kapsiki" requires for its preparation following steps: malting with quenching, germination and "kilning", decoction, filtration, boiling and sterilizing, cooling, sowing and fermentation. The final beverage is opaque, soft and sparkling. The “red Kapsiki” presented an alcohol content of 3.85 to 4.28 (% v/v), a pH close to 2.40, soluble extract from 6.30 to7.29 °P, Brix from 7.0 to 7.46 °B, total sugar from 41.8 to 72.9 (g/l), conductivity from 1919 to 1990 (µS/cm), and Specific density (g/cm) à 15°C of 1.25. The color of the “red kapsiki” varies from a pinky brown to reddish according the variety of sorghum used. The microbial analyses indicate the presence of Coliforms including Salmonella and Shigella, yeasts and molds in the beverages which indicate the bad hygienic quality of “the red Kapsiki”.

Conclusion: Despite its poor hygienic quality, the “red kapsiki”, presented great potential source of income and nutrient for local beer producers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Effect Induced by Fresh Ginger Root Extracts in Broilers

Ruth T. S. Ofongo-Abule, Elijah I. Ohimain

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18600

Poultry is challenged by microbial infection owing to the restrictions in the use of synthetic antibiotic growth promoters. This study investigated the use of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family Zingiberaceae) for the control of infections in poultry. Aqueous extracts of fresh ginger was administered to the birds by dispersing in water. A completely randomized experimental design using 100 day old broiler chicks distributed to two treatments having five replicate per treatment. The ginger extract was given to a set of 50 day old birds (ginger treatment 2) and was not added in a second set, which served as the control. The population of microbes (Lactobacillus, Salmonella, E. coli and coliforms) in the crop, ileum and caecum of the birds were determined 7 days before and 7 days after the administration of the fresh ginger extract. Before the administration of ginger, Salmonella population was highest at the crop 1.852 Log cfu/g and decreased afterwards being 1.744 Log cfu/g at the ileum and 1.710 Log cfu/g at the caecum. E. coli was 1.789, 1.821 and 1.727 Log cfu/g at the crop, ileum and caecum respectively. E. coli accounted for over 90% of the coliform population, hence they exhibited the same pattern was observed. Lactobacillus was highest at the crop (1.933 Log cfu/g) and declined through the ileum (1.842 Log cfu/g) to the caecum (1.705 Log cfu/g). The administration of aqueous extract of ginger resulted in a significant decline of all microbial species analyzed over the control (P<0.05). Hence, it is recommended that the use of ginger for the control of infection is plausible but its use must be modified to prevent killing of beneficial microbes in the broiler GIT. The proximate composition of the fresh ginger rhizome used in the study was also presented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Cellulase Producing Bacteria from the Gut of Termites (Odontotermes and Heterotermes Species)

C. P. Sreena, N. K. Resna, Denoj Sebastian

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/20001

Aim: To identify, characterize and compare the cellulolytic potentials of strains isolated from the gut of Odontotermes and Heterotermes species.

Methodology: Termites were collected, identified, surface sterilized and used as source of cellulase producers. Enrichment of cellulose utilizers were done using liquid media containing carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) as the sole source of carbon and their cellulolytic potentials were confirmed using congo red plate screening method. The isolates showing considerable zone of clearance were biochemically characterized. Three effective isolates were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Growth curves of the strains were constructed under six different conditions (static and shaking at 25°C, 37°C and 45°C). Their cellulase activities- endoglucanase, FPase and β-glucosidase, assayed at 18 hours of incubation were compared under the above mentioned conditions.

Results: Five isolates showing significant zone of clearance were selected, out of which three belonged to Bacillus and one each to Staphylococcus and Enterobacter sp. The three Bacillus sp. which were dominant cellulase producers were found to belong to Bacillus cereus (strain HT from Heterotermes sp. and ODO1, ODO2 from Odontotermes sp.). All the isolates showed high growth at 37°C under shaker condition. Bacillus cereus ODO2 displayed a higher cellulolytic potential compared to strain HT and ODO1. The endoglucanase, FPase and β-glucosidase activities of ODO2 were 5.06 U/mg, 2.52 U/mg and 6.01 U/mg respectively. ODO2 showed optimum specific activity at 37°C in shaker condition, whereas ODO1 and HT preferred static at same temperature.

Conclusion:  The strains obtained in the present study are potent cellulase producers and thus can find application in food, animal feed, textile, fuel and chemical industries. Optimization of media and genetic modification of the strains can further improve their efficiency. All the three isolates are promising in view of use in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Fungal Resources for the Production of Cellulases and Xylanases

Amit Kumar, Archana Gautam, Dharm Dutt

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/18923

Aims: The final screening of fungal isolates aimed at applications based tertiary screening i.e. deinking of mixed office waste paper and saccharification of pearl millet stover and cellulases from selected fungal isolates were characterized.

Study Design: An experimental study.

Methodology: Samples from soil, compost and decaying wood were collected from different habitats and were screened based on growth over CMC-agar medium (primary screening), zone ratios and enzyme activities (secondary screening) and applications such as bio-deinking of mixed office paper and saccharification of pearl millet stover (tertiary screening).

Results: 134 fungal isolates were selected during primary screening based on their growth. In secondary screening, fungal strains showing zone ratio of 3.0 or more were selected for application based tertiary screening. Two fungal isolates AKB-24 and AKB-25 were selected based on their applications in deinking of mixed office waste and saccharification of pearl millet stover after tertiary screening. Fungal isolates AKB-25 and AKB-24 were identified as Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium sp. Optimum pH for FPase, endoglucanase, and glucosidase activities were 5.0 for both the fungal strains. Cellulases from A. nidulans AKB-25 were found moderately thermo-stable with optimum endoglucanase activity at 65ºC and optimal FPase and β-glucosidase activities at 60ºC. The maximal endoglucanase, FPase and β-glucosidase activities were observed at 55ºC for fungal strain Penicillium sp. AKB-24. Cellulases from both fungal strains were found stable up to 48 h at 50ºC.

Conclusion: Aspergillus nidulans AKB-25 and Penicillium sp. AKB-24 were selected based on an extensive screening and enzymes from both fungal strains were found effective in bio-deinking of mixed office waste paper. Enzyme from Aspergillus nidulans AKB-25 was also found effective in saccharification of pearl millet stover.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of Genomic G+C Content between Phages/Plasmids and Their Hosts

Hiroshi Nakashima, Keiko Homma, Kazuhiro Mawatari

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2015/20046

Aims: We compared genomic G+C content between bacteriophages/plasmids and their host genomes of 46 species to reveal their relation. To examine the large deviation in the G+C content between bacteriophages and their host genomes, the ancestral bacteriophage which infected early was estimated using homologous genes of bacteriophages based on G+C content at the third codon positions.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Graduate Course of Medical Science and Technology, School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Japan.

Methodology: The bacteria employed in this study consist of 6 species from Archaea and 40 species from Eubacteria. Orthologs were identified by the two-directional best hit approach of homology search. A phylogenetic tree was obtained by multiple sequence alignment of homologous genes. The ancestral bacteriophage which infected early was estimated based on G+C content at the third codon positions. We assumed that the two bacteriophages have evolved from a common ancestor, and their identical codons were thought to represent their ancestor type.

Results: The relationship of G+C content between bacteriophages/plasmids and host genomes was almost linear. Three bacteriophages were largely deviated from the linear relation. A phylogenetic tree obtained using the orthologs of Mycobacterium smegmatis indicated which bacteriophage branched early. Assuming that the G+C content of identical codons represents their common ancestor, the ancestor was estimated that it had similar G+C content with its host.