Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Resistant Bacteria from Petroleum Producing Vicinity by Gene Amplification and Sequencing

O. Aleruchi, O. Obire

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330139

This investigation focuses on molecular identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from petroleum producing vicinity using 16S rRNA sequencing based technique. The bacterial 16s rRNA gene sequences were amplified using polymerase chain reaction, sequenced,  characterized and compared by using primers which has been compared to national center for biotechnology information (NCBI) sequence database. The presence of the plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance determinants CTX-M and QNRB genes in the bacterial isolates were analyzed. A total of four bacterial isolates that were resistant to all the antibiotic agents used were identified molecularly. The BLAST results showed 100 % similarity and phylogenetic study indicated that the genes were evolutionarily related to Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas xiamenensis, Chryseobacterium cucumeris and Staphylococcus sp., respectively. The genes obtained were submitted to the NCBI gene bank and were assigned accession number; MN094330, MN094331, MN094332 and MN094333, respectively. CTX-M and QNRB genes were however absent in the bacterial isolates. The result identified some peculiar abilities of the bacterial isolates to be resistant to antibiotics and suggests a correlation with resistance and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The level of resistance could be as a result of the disinfection process during wastewater treatment procedure or the same adaptive mechanisms possessed by the isolates to control the hydrocarbon concentration in their cell. The study also clearly indicates that these wastewaters, when discharged into the environment directly may pose a risk for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Process Parameters on the Activities of Enzymes by Different Species of Aspergillus in Crude Polluted Soil Sites

J. M. Madu, A. I. Ogbonna, C. I. C. Ogbonna

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330140

The effects of temperature, pH and incubation time on amylase, protease and cellulase activity by different species of Aspergillus in crude oil polluted soil sites in Nigeria were studied. Incubation period, Optimal pH values and temperatures for the enzymes produced by the different micro‐organisms were determined. The production of amylase by A. fumigatus and A. niger isolated from crude oil polluted sites showed that both fungi had their peaks on the first day of incubation for amylase, protease and cellulase. A. niger showed higher stability across a range of pH (3-6) and temperature (25-70oC) changes in all the enzyme activities. Further experiments are recommended to purify the secreted enzymes and stability studies will be performed to enhance the application of enzyme to commercial level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Groundnut Shell Incorporation Rates on the Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

I. R. Danbima, I. J. Tekwa, A. T. Gani

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330141

Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of groundnut shell incorporation rates on the growth and yield of maize.

Research methods: The study was carried out at the students’ demonstration farm of the Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, in 2018. Seeds were sown on a prepared land treated with four (4) doses of groundnut shells (0, 25, 50 and 75 tons/ha) arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated 4 times. Each plot was marked out at 2.0 m length × 2.0 m width with 0.5 m gap between the replicated plots and blocks. Maize growth parameters were determined at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after sowing and maize yield parameters were determined at 10 and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS).

Findings: The groundnut shell application rates increased maize growth parameters such as, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leave area index, and stem girth, number of cobs per plant and cobs weight. The results revealed that plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index and stem girth were significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced by the treatments, except for the control treatment at 2- WAS. The higher application rates (50 and 75 t/ha) of groundnut shell significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced the plant growth components better than the 25 and 0 t/ha treatment rates.

Research limitations: There were no limitations to report.

Originality/Value: The results suggests that groundnut shell incorporation rate at 50 t/ha could be recommended as the most appropriate and profitable for high performance of maize plants in Mubi. The results generally suggest that maize plants may tolerate even higher rates of groundnut shell incorporation beyond the rates used in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of Perspective Varieties of Cornelian Cherry in the Area of Tuzla Canton

Besim Salkić, Kemal Avdić, Ensar Salkić, Samira Huseinović, Ahmed Salkić, Sead Noćajević

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 25-35
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330142

Organic food production contributes to the preservation of human health, preservation and protection of the environment and increase of soil fertility, reduction of all forms of pollution as a consequence of intensive agricultural production and animal husbandry. Hence by purchasing products that carry the label organic product consumers indirectly affect the protection and preservation of the environment Organic food is food that is worth investing in due to the smaller amount of harmful substances in the products.

Cornel cherry (Cornus mas L.) is one of the most suitable species for organic production. It is adaptable to various abiotic factors and is resistant to numerous pests and diseases.

Aims: The aim of the study was to select promising dogwood phenotypes from the natural population for further reproduction by grafting.

Study Design: The subject of the research was selected 6 self-growing dogwoods from a rural area.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples of fruit were collected at the site of Ćehaje, City of Srebrenik,Tuzla Canton, BiH in the spring of 2019.

Methodology: In order to determine the best traits, the measurement of physical quantities, determination of coefficients of variation and analysis of chemical characteristics of dogwood fruits harvested from trees of 6 wild phenotypes marked as DKA1, DKA2, DKA3, DKA4, DKA5 and DKA6 were performed.

Results: Based on the analyzed indicators, the DKA6 phenotype showed the best results.

Open Access Review Article

Cellulase: Distribution, Production, Characterization and Industrial Applications

Pratibha Maravi, Anil Kumar

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 36-71
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330143

Cellulase enzyme complex is comprised of three enzymes namely exo-glucanase, endo-glucanase and β-glucosidase which act synergistically to deconstruct cellulosic biomass in order to produce fermentable sugars. The enzymes are produced naturally by the living organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. The majority of microorganisms that live in extreme environments including hot/cold springs, rumen stomach, deep ocean trench, acidic/alkaline pH environment, have been regarded as appealing producers of cellulase. Cellulases produced by microorganisms have enormous applications in different industries such as agriculture, food and feed production, brewing, textile, laundry and biofuel production. Scientists as well as industry researchers consider cellulases as a prospective candidate for further studies due to the intricacy of the enzyme system and massive industrial potential. Scientific belief in its production and further studies challenges are receiving greater attention these days, notably in the intent of decreasing its production cost at the industrial scale. In this review, future possibilities of using cellulase for various industrial applications are also addressed.