Open Access Original Research Article

Biotechnological Application of Cassava-Degrading Fungal (CDF) Amylase in Broiler Feed Formulation

Oghenetega J. Avwioroko, Akpovwehwee A. Anigboro, Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/20614

In this study, an attempt was made to substitute maize (Zea mays L.) content of broiler starter feed with ground cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels enzymatically improved with amylase-producing fungi with a view to having a cost-effective yet nutritious and health-friendly feed. The biochemical components of the formulated feeds were determined as well as the effect of the feeds on some biochemical parameters in the broiler chicks. Six starter feeds tagged Control Feed, 20%CPFG, 40%CPFG, 60%CPFG, 80%CPFG and 100%CPFG were formulated with respect to variations in maize and cassava peel contents. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in total polysaccharide contents of Feeds 20%CPFG, 60%CPFG, 80%CPFG and 100%CPFG compared to the Control Feed (191.4±14.5 mg/g of feed). Total soluble protein and reducing sugar contents were statistically different in most of the feeds (p<0.05). All the feeds contain relatively high amounts of total phenol (>70 mgCE/g of feed) and most of them comparatively high in anthocyanin relative to the control feed anthocyanin content (225.4±12.2 mg/g of feed). The highest weight gain (108.0±3.0 g) was observed in broiler chicks fed the feed ration containing 60% cassava peels improved with amylase-producing fungi and 40% maize (60%CPFG). Broiler chicks fed the formulated feeds, including the control, exhibited over 40% inhibition against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in birds fed the compounded feeds and control slightly differed except in group 60%CPFG. It was concluded that the maize content in broiler feed can be replaced with cassava peels improved with fungal amylase upto a maximum of 60%. This would significantly decrease the overall cost of broiler feed production without compromising the nutritional, antioxidant and health-friendly potentials of the feed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Bacteria Community Isolated from Wood Decay

Fatma Meddeb-Mouelhi, Jessica Kelly Moisan, Marc Beauregard

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/21512

In order to discover enzymes having potential for wood fibre modification, bacteria (fourteen strains designated MMB1 to MMB14) were isolated from a decomposing stump from a resinous tree. Phylogenetic analysis and biochemical characterization indicated that these isolates were related to Microbacterium, Chryseobacterium, Lysinibacillus, and Bacillus gene; although most demonstrated phenotypic differences compared to previously characterized relatives. Only the Bacillus strains showed cellulolytic activity (as CMCase detected with Congo red) and only Bacillus subtilis strains (MMB10 to MMB14) displayed cellulolytic and secreted xylanase activity. Phenotypic characterization of two strains (MMB8 and MMB9) related to a previously characterized isolate (Bacillus sp. JU2), supported their reassignment to the genus Lysinibacillus. The Microbacterium strain MMB1 produced a green pigment when grown in the presence of light. Some microbes from the consortium were devoid of wood polymer modifying enzymes, and may be dependent on other organisms for their survival in this biotope.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Virulence of Tanzanian Strains of Fowlpox and Pigeonpox Viruses in Chickens

S. N. Masola, A. Mzula, C. J. Kasanga, P. N. Wambura

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/20150

Aim: To evaluate the virulence characteristics of recently isolated Tanzanian strains of fowlpox virus (FWPV) and pigeonpox virus (PGPV) in chickens.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; between January 2015 and April 2015.

Methodology: Ten-day embryonated chicken eggs were used for In ovo evaluation. The eggs were randomly grouped into four groups (I, II, III, and IV) of 5 eggs each. Each egg in group I, II, and III was inoculated with 0.1 ml of 106 EID50/0.1 ml of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV)-free FWPV inoculum; REV-integrated FWPV inoculum; and PGPV inoculum; respectively, through chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs). Group IV eggs served as control. All eggs were incubated at 37ºC for 7 days, thereafter CAMs and chicken embryos were examined for gross pathological changes. One hundred and forty chicks were used for In vivo evaluation. At 26 days of age the chicks were randomly grouped into four groups (I, II, III, and IV) of 35 chicks each. Each chicken in group I, II, and III was inoculated with 0.1 ml of 106 EID50/0.1 ml of REV-free FWPV inoculum; REV-integrated FWPV inoculum; and PGPV inoculum; respectively, subcutaneously. Chickens in group IV served as control. Thereafter from day zero to day 28 post-inoculation, the chickens were examined for development of clinical signs and deaths; followed by necropsy of dead chickens and examination of samples of cutaneous nodular lesions from chickens inoculated with REV-free FWPV or REV-integrated FWPV for the presence of FWPV by using standard procedures.    

Results: Extensive pock lesions and severe haemorrhages were evident on CAMs and embryos, respectively, of eggs inoculated with REV-integrated FWPV. Chickens inoculated with REV-integrated FWPV developed a severe disease, characterized by mortality rate of 57%.

Conclusion: REV-integrated FWPV strains are more virulent in susceptible chickens than REV-free FWPV strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of Staphylococcus Species from Anatomical and Environmental Sites in the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

A. O. Ogundare, F. O. Ekundayo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/19025

This study reveals the methicillin sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The two species of Staphylococci were isolated from polluted and unpolluted soil and water; anatomical sites such as nose, ear, skin, hand and throat; wastes from dustbin, roof, poultry, postgraduate hostel’s bathroom and toilet in the Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State. Clinical isolates and typed culture were also collected from the Microbiology Laboratory Obafemi Awolowo University and Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Ibadan, Nigeria respectively. Isolation, characterisation and identification were done according to standard microbiological methods. The occurrence of S. aureus was more prevalent with 66.67% while S. epidermidis was 33.33%. Staphylococci isolated, clinical isolates from hospital and typed culture (ATCC-25923) were all resistant to tested antibiotics. Ninety percent (90%) of S. aureus and sixty percent (60%) of S. epidermidis from the samples showed resistance to Methicillin. More regulations should be encouraged on the use of antibiotics and formation of antibiotic policy guidelines is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Curing of Anoxybacillus rupiensis Strain Ir3 (JQ912241) Plasmid (s) in their Ability for Biodegradation of Carbazole

Majid H. Al-Jailawi, Mayada S. Mahdi, Ayad M. A. Fadhil

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/17273

Aims: To study the effect of curing agents on A. rupiensis Ir3 (JQ912241) plasmid(s) and the plasmid(s) role in utilization of carbazole in this bacterium.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University. Baghdad, Iraq, between October 2012 and February 2013.

Methodology: Anoxybacillus rupiensis strain Ir3 (JQ912241) a newly thermophilic bacterium capable to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons, was used. Plasmid profile of this bacterium was determined. This bacterium was treated with two curing agent’s in order to cure their plasmids.

Results: Plasmid profile of A. rupiensis strain Ir3 (JQ912241) showed that this bacterium contains large and small plasmid DNA bands. In order to determine the role of plasmid in utilization carbazole, many attempts were made to cure plasmid (s) of this bacterium using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Ethidium Bromide (Et.Br). Results indicated that no cured colonies (lost their ability to utilize carbazole at 70°C) were obtained. Plasmid isolated from some of these colonies being treated with Et.Br, indicated that these colonies are still harboring the large plasmid.

Conclusion: It was difficult to cure the large plasmid, and the utilization trait might be located on it or on the chromosome.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Moroccan Plants against Phytopathogenic Microorganisms: A Review

Ilham Zahir

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-36
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/21430

Plant diseases caused by microorganisms are a major problem that touches many agricultural crops, causing damages in yield potential each year in Morocco as in other countries. To face this burden, medicinal plants are among the richest bio-resources of the drugs currently used for biological control. This review cites sixty two Moroccan plants with antimicrobial properties. The activities described here show that there are many potential plants that should undergo further application studies in the field to assess their possible use as bio-pesticide.