Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Production from Different Biomass Wastes with/without Leachate Recirculation

Falah F. Bani Hani

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22897

This study attempts to determine the effect of leachate recirculation on biogas production. The study was carried out by using the co-disposal of three major wastes: municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge and cow dung. Experiments are carried out in two stainless steel columns with daily feeding. The first reactor (R1: without leachate recirculation) and second reactor (R2: with leachate recirculation) both reactors compacted with 10% of cow dung + 70% of MSW and 20% sewage sludge by weight. Cow dung was added to facilitate the enzymatic hydrolysis or extracellular depolymerisation of polymers such as carbohydrate, fat and protein. The impact of leachate recirculation was investigated. Chemical parameters as pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), ammoniacal-N, total-P) and gas production (total volume, CH4 and CO2) were monitored for 12 weeks. The research demonstrated a dependency between recirculation of leachate and the volume and composition of biogas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immediate Versus Delayed Dental Implants

Wamiq Musheer Fareed

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23453

Objective: The main aim of this study was to compare immediate and delayed implants for the placement and postoperative assessment. For this purpose, dental implant were placed using the set criteria and patients were recalled for follow up for postoperative assessment.

Methods: This is a clinical study comparing the outcome of immediate placement versus delayed placement of Osseointegrated dental implants. Patients were divided in to two study groups (Group I and Group II) using the set criteria. Group I (n=12) Immediate Dental Implant and Group II (n=12) Delayed Dental Implant All patients were assessed preoperatively for complete medical and dental history and clinical examination. Surgically placement of dental implant was performed under local anesthesia. Patients were recalled for postoperative follow up for six month.

Results: Implant mobility was not reported in any case under investigation during the follow up period. Bone loss was higher in Group II at all the instances. For group I bone loss was 0.24±0.26 mm, 0.18±0.16 mm, 0.08±0.09 mm for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks respectively. The higher bone loss ~0.5 mm/week was observed for the same period in group II patients. Regarding pain assessment, at 1 week, in both the groups the mean pain score was 0.63, at 2nd week in Group I the pain score was 0.13±0.35 while in Group II it was 0.06±0.25.

Conclusion: Immediate and delayed dental implants provide excellent stability. Immediate type of implantations was comparatively better in controlling the peri-implant radiolucency, postoperative infection and inflammation. Excessive bone drilling required for delayed implants result in exaggerated bone reaction and leading to higher rate of bone resorption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alteration in Trace Elements Concentration and Possible Copper Toxicity in Juiced Leafy Vegetables Commonly Consumed in Southwestern Nigeria

P. Olufunke Adeniji, G. Gbenga Daramola, A. Kazeem Atunnise, K. Temitope Odufuwa, B. Adewale Salau

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22744

This study investigated the effects of juicing on four micro-minerals (Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo) contents of six different leafy vegetables commonly consumed in South western, Nigeria. Micro-minerals were determined using Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometer (AAS). Among the fresh vegetables, highest level of micro-minerals was recorded in Senecio biafrae for Cu (9.13±0.21 mg/100 g dry weight); Manihot esculenta for Zn (2.01±0.17 mg/100 g dry weight); Ipomoea batatas for Mn (3.78±0.29 mg/100 g dry weight) and Senecio biafrae for Mo (35.00±0.00 µg/100 g dry weight). In juiced form, highest value of Cu was noted in Launaea taraxacifolia (21.43±1.58 mg/100 g dry weight); Zn in Senecio biafrae (3.24±0.26 mg/100 g dry weight), Mn in Launaea taraxacifolia (11.76±2.25 mg/100 g dry weight) and Mo in Piper guineense (44.00±0.00 µg/100 g dry weight). The least micro-minerals contents noted in juice fraction of vegetables are as follows: Cu, Ipomoea batatas (2.35±0.15 mg/100 g dry weight); Zn, Launaea taraxacifolia (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g dry weight); Mn, Piper guineense (2.68±0.27 mg/100 g dry weight) and Mo, Ipomoea batatas (0.002±0.00 mg/100 g dry weight). Increased concentrations of micro-minerals was observed in virtually  all juice fractions when compared with their corresponding fresh vegetables with exception of Ipomoea batatas, where Zn and Mo contents reduced in the juice when compared with its corresponding fresh vegetables. It could be deduced that the juice fraction of vegetables contain more of trace-minerals in some of the vegetables. In addition, intake of 100 g dry weight of any of the vegetable (fresh form) does not lead to toxic intake of any of the minerals using Recommended Daily Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) as a standard. However, intake of the same corresponding dry weight in juice would lead to toxic level of Cu in all the vegetables except Ipomoea batatas; whereas, such amount would not lead to Zn, Mn and Mo toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

DNA from Oral Rinse- A Comparison of Three Protocols for Amplification of VDR, FTO and Beta-Globin Genes

Muhammad Haris Lucky, Saeeda Baig

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22199

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different protocols for DNA extraction from oral rinse on the basis of their quantity and quality of DNA, simplicity, cost effectiveness and rapidity, as well as its efficiency for amplification of vitamin D receptor (VDR), Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and β-globin genes.

Methodologies: The three methods included; Method 1 (organic solvent extraction), Method 2 (spin column) and Method 3 (ion-exchange extraction). DNA extracted from oral rinse was used for PCR amplification of β-globin, VDR-FOK1 and FTO gene.

Results: The amplified products of 268bp (β-globin), 265bp (VDR-Fok1) and 182bp (FTO) were observed on HeroLab Gel doc system (Germany). Method 2 provided the average highest DNA yield (9.54±1.85 ng/µl) compared to 6.66±1.14 ng/µl and 7.57±0.96 ng/µl by method 1 and 3. Method 2 was found to have a better performance in terms of DNA quantity and quality, however, method 3 was the fastest and method 1 was the most cost effective methods but the PCR amplification from DNA from all three methods was the same.

Conclusion: Oral rinse was found one of the alternative non-invasive sources for DNA extraction and is sufficient for good quality and quantity of DNA extracted by three different methods. It may be concluded that method 1 can be employed for large scale epidemiological and molecular biological studies.

Open Access Review Article

Jumping Genes-“The Other Half of the Human Genome” and the Missing Heritability Conundrum of Human Genetic Disorders

Deepu Pandita, Anu Pandita

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/13904

Almost 45% of the human genome is composed of transposons with about 4 million copies. The retrotransposons constitute 42% of the human genome with active families (Long Interspersed Nuclear Element, SINE-R, VNTR, and Alu) allied with insertional mutagenesis and diseases. There are >500,000 L1 copies which represent ~17% with less than 100 active copies and are inserted in the human genome; >1 million Alu copies referred to as “a parasite’s parasite” and ~3,000 SVA (SINE-R, VNTR, and Alu) copies. Some Human Endogenous Retroviruses are still active in humans. Nonactive DNA transposons embody 3% of the human genome. TEs are known to engender genomic instability and reorganize gene expression system in germline as well as the somatic cells. The amended retrotransposon expression or function appears to be associated with stress, alcohol, neurodegeneration and aging. This review highlights recent findings on the role of jumping genes in human genetic disorders like cancer, autoimmune and neurological diseases.