Open Access Original Research Article

Essential Oil Constituents from the Fruit of Alpinia menghaiensis

Do N. Dai, Le T. Huong, Tran D. Thang, Tajudeen O. Olayiwola, Abdul Razaq A. Ogunmoye, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/22908

The chemical composition of volatiles from the fruits of Alpinia menghaiensis S. Q. Tong & Y. M. Xia (Zingiberaceae) has been studied. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The components of the essential oils were identified by comparison of their mass spectra (MS) data and linear retention indices (LRI) with literature data. The essential oil content was 0.32% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. The fruit oil of A. menghaiensis comprised mainly of compounds of monoterpene represented by β-pinene (40.4%), α-pinene (11.3%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%). The chemical composition of the essential oil from the fruit of the plant was being reported for the first time.

Aims: The objective of the present paper was to report the volatile constituents identified in essential oil of the fruit of Alpinia menghaiensis S. Q. Tong & Y. M. Xia growing in Vietnam.

Study Design: The study involves the collection of the fruit samples, hydrodistillation of essential oil from the sample and analyses of the oil sample by means of gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Place and Duration of Study: Mature fruits of A. menghaiensis were collected from Pù Mát National Park, Nghean Province, Vietnam, in August 2014.

Methodology: The hydrodistilled essential oil from the air-dried fruits A. menghaiensis was analysed by means of GC-FID and GC-MS. The constituents were identified by comparison of their mass spectra and retention indices with known data base of authentic samples of essential oil. Co-injection with authentic compounds was also done where necessary.

Results: Monoterpene hydrocarbons (68.0%) and oxygenated monoterpene (14.9%) represent the main classes of compounds identified in the oil. The fruit of A. menghaiensis afforded oil whose major compounds were β-pinene (40.4%), a-pinene (11.3%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%).

Conclusion: The high amount of both β-pinene and a-pinene makes the composition of the fruit oil of A. menghaiensis similar to those found for the leaf of A. malaccensis, flower of A. breviligulata, and flower of A. speciosa previously studied from Vietnam. However, there are some other quantitative and qualitative variations between the oil samples. The present result may contribute to the understanding of the chemotaxonomy of Alpinia plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mixed Palm Oil Waste Utilization through Integrated Mushroom and Biogas Production

Stella Gilbert Temu, Anselm P. Moshi, Ivo Achu Nges, Anthony Manoni Mshandete, Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi, Bo Mattiasson

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23385

Aim of the Study: The study was to integrate mushroom and biogas production using mixed palm oil to provide both food and energy source to palm oil producing communities as well as reducing environmental pollution.

Design of the Study: Mixed palm oil waste was divided into two portions. One portion was used for mushroom cultivation and afterwards the spent mushroom substrate and the untreated portion were used for biogas production.

Methodology: Structural sugars analysis was performed using double acid hydrolysis technique. Total crude protein was determined through kjeldal acid digestion method. Lipids were extracted using a mixture of chloroform and methanol and quantified gravimetrically. 

The mushroom strain (Coprinus scinereus) was cultivated on the mixed palm oil waste. Afterwards, the spent mushroom substrate and the untreated palm oil waste were subjected to anaerobic digestion in automatic methane potential test system.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was completed in 2 years from 2014-2015.  Mushroom cultivation was carried out at the University of Dar-e salaam, Tanzania, whereas feedstock characterization and anaerobic digestion were performed at Lund University, Sweden. 

Results: Compositional analysis disclosed that the feedstock contains (% w/w) 0.1 proteins, 3.3 carbohydrates, 22.5 lipids, and 73 lignin. Mushroom yield was 0.64 g /g of substrate at a biological efficiency of 71.4 g/100 g of substrate and productivity of 21.5±0.5%. Consequently total carbohydrates and lipids were decreased by 70% and 76% while the relative content of lignin and protein increased by 23% and 50%, respectively. Particle size reduction (<4 mm) resulted to increased methane yield by 66%. The untreated and biologically treated mixed palm oil wastes yielded 517 and 287 of CH4 L/Kg VS added  which corresponded to 80% and 64.5% of theoretical methane yield, respectively.

Conclusion: Combined mushroom and biogas production offer superior benefits in the utilization of the palm oil waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Waste Oil Biodegradation Potential among Bacteria Isolates from Waste Oil and Pristine Soils

D. R. Tiku, B. E. Asikong

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23598

The research study was aimed at investigating waste oil biodegradation potential among bacteria isolates from waste oil and pristine soil samples. Auto-mechanic workshop and pristine soil environments were randomly sampled within Calabar Metropolis. The study was completed within a period of six months. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate, characterize and identify bacteria from the collected soil samples, while waste oil biodegradation potential of the bacteria isolates were determined using screen test for used engine oil and hydraulic oil utilization by bacteria isolates from both waste oil polluted and pristine soil. The level of turbidity, degree of precipitation and colour of precipitate were used to assess the biodegradation ability of the bacteria isolates. The total heterotrophic bacteria counts from the waste oil polluted soil samples ranged from 3.16x106 to 4.15x106cfu/g while that of the pristine soil sample ranged from 1.91x105 to 9.12x105cfu/g. Used engine oil biodegraders from the waste oil polluted soil were identified as Serratia spp, Enterobacter spp while efficient used engine oil and hydraulic oil biodegraders were identified as Shigella spp, Corynecbacterium spp, Klebsiella spp, Yersinia spp, Serratia spp and Aeromonas spp, Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas spp, while Serratia spp and Yersinia spp from the pristine soil also showed used engine oil biodegradation potentials and Bacillus spp was identified as efficient used engine and hydraulic oil biodegraders. However, it was obvious from the study that waste oil degraders and their proportion within an area appear to be marginally higher in environment with waste oil exposure and pollution as confirmed by the biodegradation potentials of bacteria isolates from the auto-mechanic workshop investigated, this therefore calls for the optimization of the process as it could serve as a more eco-friendly approach for the bioremediation of waste oil contaminated sites. 

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Direct Regeneration of Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Cultivars of Sudan

Iman K. A. Abdel Gadir, Marmar A. El Siddig, Hayfa H. A. Ibrahim, Adil A. El Hussein

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/23109

In vitro direct plantlets’ development from different explants of cotton was studied using nine cultivars which have been developed in Sudan. The influence of various phytohormones on morphogenetic response of different explants of each cultivar was tested. The best medium for multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants was Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L Zeatin. In this medium, the highest regeneration percentage (92%) and the maximum number of shoots (2) were recorded for Sudac K cultivar. Shoot elongation and rooting of most of the shooted explants were obtained in 0.05 mg/L Gibberellic acid (GA3)-supplemented MS medium. Embryo axis explants were best regenerated in MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L Kinetin + 0.1 mg/ L 2,4-D in seven of the nine tested cultivars. The highest shooting percentage (80%) was recorded for Shambat-B followed by Hamid cultivar (75%). The majority of the shoots (62.4%) showed root formation in MS medium supplemented with Kinetin + 2,4-D medium. Non- rooted shoots derived from shoot tip and embryo axis explants showed a range of 90-100 rooting percentages when transferred into 0.1 mg/ L IBA- supplemented MS medium. Cotyledonary nodes explants of cultivars Abdin, Kheiralla, Barakat-90, Knight and Barakat were found to form shoots in 0.1 mg/L Kinetin-supplemented MS medium, with the highest percentage (79%) recorded for Barakat cultivar. Rooting was induced, for all shooted explants, in ½ strength MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L NAA.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Drying and Salting on the Nutrient Composition and Organoleptic Properties of Talinum triangulare Leaves

Fred Omon Joseph Oboh, Gift Ejehiokhin Madojemu

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BBJ/2016/21788

Aims: The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of drying and salting on the nutrient content and sensory properties of Talinum triangulare leaves.

Study Design: The methods of drying and salting were: oven drying to constant weight at 40°C without any pretreatment, blanching in steam prior to oven drying to constant weight at 40°C, light salting (25 g dry salt/ kg leaves), light brine and vinegar treatment (50 g salt / L +50 ml vinegar/ kg leaves), and heavy salting (250 g/ kg leaves). Each salt treatment was provided for a duration of 14 days.

Methodology: Moisture, pH, ash, Ca, Fe, Na, crude fibre, β- and total carotene and vitamin C content of the fresh leaves and the products of the treatments were determined. Values for the fresh and the treated leaves on one hand, and those for products of the various treatments were then compared statistically. Sensory characteristics were also recorded.

Results: Compared with the fresh vegetable, oven drying, alone or after blanching of the leaves, resulted in a decrease in nutrient content, with retention ranging from 22.08% (for vitamin C in the leaves dried without prior blanching) to 95.69% (for Na in the blanched and oven-dried samples). Blanching prior to drying gave higher retention of β-carotene, total carotene and vitamin C than oven drying alone, but offered no advantage over the latter for the preservation of ash, iron, sodium and calcium (minerals). Compared with the fresh vegetable, salting resulted in high loss of                β-carotene, total carotene, vitamin C and iron, and an increase in sodium and calcium.