Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of the Fungicidal Potential of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Thevetia peruviana on the Development of Rigidoporus lignosus, Causal Agent of White Root rot of Hevea brasiliensis

Serge Bertrand Mboussi, Alain Heu, Abdou Nourou Kone Nsangou, Martial Douanla Ajebe, Godswill Ntsomboh Ntsefong, Jules Patrice Ngoh Dooh, Zachée Ambang

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130127

Aims: The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of (aqueous (EAq) and methanolic (ME)) extracts of Thevetia peruviana on the in vitro development of Rigidoporus lignosus.

Study Design: A synthetic fungicide (Onazol 100), two extracts at differents concentrations: C1 = 3.5 mg / ml; C2 = 7 mg / ml; C3 = 15 mg / ml; C4 = 30 mg / ml; C5 = 50 mg / ml and C6 = 100 mg / ml for EAq; C1 = 3.5 ml/ml; C2 = 7 ml/ml; C3 = 15 ml/ml; C4 = 30 ml/ml; C5 = 50 ml/ml for ME and a negative control (T = 0 mg / ml) were used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in pathology laboratory at University of Yaounde I and IRAD of Nkolbisson in 2018.

Methodology: Daily measurements of the pathogen's development was used to evaluate the average growth (D) of the mycelium. The inhibition percentages of the different doses of EAq, ME and ONAZOL 100 were calculated after 4 to 5 days of growth of the fungus.

Results: The major result obtained compared to the rate of rot showed that the treatments EAq, ME (C6) and ONAZOL 100 were closed. The disease rates at different concentrations of C1 to C6 were 13.91 to 100% for ME, 9.34 to 100% for EAq, and 100% for ONAZOL 100.

Conclusion: The two extracts are promising, and on small and medium scale, could be an effective and cheap formulation for the control of Rigidoporus lignosus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Diversity of Nigerian Sludge and Its Potential for Use as Biofertilizer

Opeyemi Fatunla, Joseph Essien, Utibe Ofon, Solomon Shaibu, Emmanuel Dan

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130130

Sludge samples were collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Nigeria for characterization and evaluation for agricultural applications. Conventional and Molecular techniques were adopted for the isolation and identification of indigenous microorganisms and resulting isolates were characterized and identified by consulting Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology and subjected to further screenings to assess their biofertilizer potential using standard microbiological techniques. The viable cells obtained were enumerated and were found to be in the range of 1.03 ± 0.09 x103 cfu/g to 7.45 ± 0.78 x103 cfu/g for heterotrophic Bacteria and 1.63 ± 0.74 x103 cfu/g for fungal community. The Molecular analysis carried out revealed a rich assemblage of diverse species of microorganisms with Bacteria (99.40%) being the most dominant group, followed by Fungi (0.39%) and others (0.21%). Thirty (30) isolates belonging to four (4) Phyla was recovered culturally and identified with Firmicutes 9(30%) being the most dominant group, followed by Proteobacteria 8(26.7%) and Zygomycota 1(3.33%) was the least dominant. The phosphate solubilization index range from 0.86 to 6.3 for bacterial and 2.5 to 3.8 for fungal isolates respectively. The molecular analysis also revealed microbes adept at improving soil fertility to include those in the order Rhizobiales and Actinomycetales. Although pathogens are of a concern in the land application of sludge, our findings have revealed rich microbial consortia of heterotrophic microorganisms whose beneficial attributes can be harnessed to produce nutrient rich biofertilizer and soil amendment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Evaluation and Antioxidant Capacity of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus pulmonarius in Ibadan, Nigeria

G. Aruwa, C. O. Adenipekun, S. T. Ogunbanwo, E. O. Akinbode

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130131

Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of two selected mushrooms in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Study Design: An experimental and descriptive study was conducted using the fruit bodies of Ganoderma lucidum collected from the Botanical garden University of Ibadan and Pleurotus pulmonarius which was bought from a local store in Ibadan. Successive extraction was done on the mushrooms with four solvents of increasing polarity that is from the non-polar (N-hexane) to a more polar solvent(water).Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis were then carried out on the extract fractions.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria and Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria  between May 2018 and February 2020.

Methodology: The N-Hexane, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol and Aqueous extract fraction of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus pulmonarius were analyzed in different system, including DPPH, Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC). The various antioxidant activities were compared to the standard ascorbic acid. Phytochemical include: Phenol, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Steroids, Saponins, Terpenoids Anthraquinones, and Cardiac glycosides were also analysed.

Results: The Phytochemical screening result shows the presence of Phenol, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Steroids, Saponins, Terpenoids Anthraquinones, and Cardiac glycosides. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed that the Ethyl acetate fraction of Ganoderma lucidum recorded the highest percentage of Alkaloids (41.70±0.14%) while the Ethanolic fraction of Pleurotus pulmonarius has the lowest percentage of Tannins (0.10±0.24%).  DPPH scavenging activity of the Ethanolic extract fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (at 200 µg/ml) was 94.96% higher than that of Pleurotus pulmonarius (22.39%). The extract fraction of all the mushrooms possesses significant TAC content with N-Hexane and Ethyl acetate fraction having the highest. The results of the DPPH, FRAP, and TAC assays indicate that both mushrooms examined showed significant antioxidant activities. Among these, Ganoderma lucidum extract seems to be more effective antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of theses mushrooms has significant importance as it greatly contribute to their nutraceutical properties thus enhancing their nutritive value. Cultivation and production of dietary supplements from Ganoderma lucidum is highly recommended.

Conclusion: The Mushrooms species analyzed have demonstrated to be good sources of phytochemical and antioxidants hence it can be recommended to pharmaceutical industries for the manufacturing of drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Characterization of Two Polygalacturonases Purified from the Digestive Juice of the Snail Limicolaria flammea

Armand Kouassi Kanga, Djary Michel Koffi, Bernard Téhi Sea, Jaures Oscar Gbotognon, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 41-54
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130133

Polygalacturonases constitute the major part of pectinase preparations for many bioprocess purposes. Investigation on the digestive juice of snail Limicolaria flammea led to purification of two polygalacturonases named PG1 and PG2. Properties of these enzymes were examined to explore their potential in biotechnology applications. A three steps procedure including size exclusion, anion and cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography were used for purification. The enzymes PG1 and PG2 had native molecular weights of approximately 46 and 86 kDa, respectively and functioned both as monomeric structures. The purified polygalacturonases PG1 and PG2 showed optimum hydrolysis activities at 50°C in sodium acetate buffer pH 5.6. The common inhibitor of the two purified polygalacturonases activity were Mn2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, EDTA, SDS and L-cystein. NH3+  stimulate            the polygalacturonase PG1 while Ba2+ was an activator for polygalacturonase PG2. Substrate specificity indicated that these enzymes hydrolyse a broad range of pectin from different sources. The highest activity of PG1 was observed with apple pectin and lemon pectin while PG2 showed its highest activity with orange pectin. The catalytic efficiency of PG1 was highest for lemon pectin (0.125 µmol/min/mL) and orange pectin (0.124 µmol/min/mL). PG2 displayed highest catalytic efficiency (0.325 µmol/min/mL) towards orange pectin. These results suggest that orange and lemon pectin would be the potential physiological substrates of the two purified enzymes.

Open Access Review Article

Piranhea trifoliata an Amazonian Plant with Therapeutic Action: A Review

Lucineide Teixeira Vieira, Márcia Pinheiro Da Silva, José Dobles Dias Dos Reis Júnior, Carlos Antônio Couto Lima, Anderson Oliveira Souza

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130132

The use of medicinal plants reflects the reality of a part of human history. The Brazilian population with limited access to public health programs led to the development and conservation of ethnobotanical knowledge-rich information regarding medicinal plants. However, popular wisdom lacks systematization so that it can correctly use it. Herein we present the Piranhea trifoliata (family Picrondendraceae), an Amazonian plant with a wide variety of molecules with biological effects. The antimalarial effect was the dominant description observed in the studies used for this review, followed by antifungal and antioxidant actions. This review provides a synopsis of the recent literature exploring the extracts from P. trifoliata that could efficiently prevent pathologies associated with cellular maintenance mechanisms during malaria or fungal infection and oxidative stress.