Open Access Short Research Article

Serratia nevei 9rpt1, a Potential Microorganism for Phosphorus Recovery

Samara Ferreira Santos, Marcelo Santos Silva, Tetsuo Yamane, Adolfo José Da Mota

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 5-10
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i330175

Aims: Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, finite and irreplaceable. Its constant exploration on a global scale has motivated frequent alerts regarding an eventual crisis due to the shortage of this nutrient. However, it is possible to recycle it and reintroduce it into the ecological cycle. One viable alternative is the microbial recovery of phosphate.

Study design: This study is based on systematic bioprospection of bacteria in phosphate-deficient Amazon regions.

Place and Duration of Study: Bacteria were isolated from black water samples, collected in the Rio Pretinho, located at Serra do Aracá, Barcelos, Amazonas, Brazil, from January to July 2019.

Methodology: Microbial isolation was performed in Luria Bertani agar medium. For the genomic study, the isolate with the best performance in the phosphate uptake test was chosen. The WGS was carried out in a Illumina HiSeq 2500 System. The assembly of the draft genome was carried out with the SPAdes and the annotation by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP).

Results: Serratia nevei 9rpt1 recovers 90% of the phosphate available in the culture medium. Its draft genome comprises 5.4 MB, the GC content is 59.52% and 4,922 coding sequences were identified, among these, two pst operons: one complete, containing the five pst genes and one missing pstS, pstC and phoU genes.

Conclusion: Serratia nevei 9rpt1, isolated from an Amazonian environment poor in phosphate, is very efficient to uptake this nutrient in a Pi starvation condition. The genomic findings revealed this strain has an additional high affinity Pi uptake pst system containing the ATP-binding protein PstB, the canonical permease PstA, a putative permease other than PstC, upstream of the PstA and two essential enzymes in the polyphosphate metabolism: polyphosphate kinase 1 and exopolyphosphatase.

Open Access Short communication

Feasibility of Building a Biotech Industry

José A. Buxadó, Miladys Limonta Fernández, Gerardo E. Guillén Nieto, Marta Ayala Ávila

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i330174

The performance of Cuban biotechnology from 2008 to 2021 has shown a growing pipeline of valuable biomedical solutions. As the transformation of this sector into an industrial group has changed its R&D productivity and bio manufacturing capacity, we summarize here the results of R&D projects with impact on public health, constraints found in Cuba, lessons, and opportunities to develop this science-based industry in developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Micromorphological Study of Plant Fragments in Some Powdered Medicinal Plants Commercially Sold in Enugu Nigeria

Anwuna C. Divine, Onyia C. Felix, Onyemaechi Paschaleen, Ene Christabel, Iroka F. Chisom

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i330176

Powdered samples of 10 medicinal plant species purchased from different herbal medicine sellers in markets across Enugu metropolis and Iwollo market in Ezeagu Local Government Area Enugu state Nigeria were studied anatomically in search of micomorphological characters to identify the original plants used in the preparation. Moistened head of the needle was used to transfer samples onto a labeled glass slide containing 1 - 2 drops of water and plant stains; covered with cover slip and warmed gently to remove air bubbles. Samples were observed under the microscope in search of intact whole tissues and cells which could be used to identify the species of plant. The main characteristics of the fragments recovered from the samples are, parenchyma cells, trichomes, sclereid tissue system and long, branching non-septate fibre as in E. sonchifolia, T. terrestis, P. santalinoides; stomata as in C. odorata; elaioplast/oil storing cells as in C. pallida and H. surattensis; and then sheath cells as in U. chamae. Two of the plant samples studied did not display structures clear enough to identify them; while one of the samples had some structures recovered but wasn’t helpful enough to identify the plant. Thus, the study suggested that an examination by microscopy can provide a form of identification of plants from processed plant materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioethanol Production from Various Lignocellulosic Materials by Encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3095

Sagar Bhakare, Mahesh S. Wagh, Pravin Kale, Avinash Gadhave

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i3650

Bioethanol has a greater promise for environmental safety and energy security than fossil fuels. The alternate source required to meet the fuel's requirements can be provided by bioethanol. Untapped sugar-rich sources, like cellulose-rich household wastes, industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes, can all be used to make bioethanol at a minimal cost. The study's objective was to determine whether saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from the encapsulated NCIM 3095 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used to make low-cost ethanol from a variety of lignocellulosic wastes, including newspaper, banana leaves, gram straw, soybean straw, and cow dung. To reduce bacterial contamination and serve as an external growth stimulator, benzathine penicillin G and ammonium sulfate were added to each sample broth containing calcium alginate-encapsulated yeast cells. The samples were fermented for ten days. The ethanol content was evaluated every three days. The largest yield of bioethanol was produced by soybean straw (10.0%), while the lowest was by cow dung (4.0%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Extract of Cashew Apple Cake (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Rats and Mice

Dosso Mamadou, Coulibaly Adama, Kouadio N’guessan Innocent, Soro Doudjo

Biotechnology Journal International, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i3651

Aims: The aqueous extract of cashew apple cakes, rich in molecules of pharmacological interest, could be used against many diseases. Thus, the aim of the present work is to evaluate its hepatoprotective activity in rats and mice. 

Methodology: Two batches of rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams, with five rats per batch, were pretreated for eleven days with the aqueous extract of cashew apple cakes at concentrations ranging from 150 to 300 mg.Kg-1 bw, then intoxicated with paracetamol at 2 g.Kg-1 bw, for three days. The blood of these rats was collected and submitted to biochemical analyses. 

Two batches of mice weighing between 20 and 30 grams, with five mice per batch, were pretreated with the same test substance at concentrations also ranging from 150 to 300 mg.Kg-1 bw, then intoxicated with paracetamol before receiving phenobarbital. Afterwards, their sleep time was evaluated.

Results: In rats, paracetamol intoxication materialized by the increase in serum ALT activity ranging from 109±5.19 to 571±20.28 IU.L-1 and that of AST ranging from 144±5.77 to 428±14.19 IU.L-1. Similarly, direct bilirubin increased from 0 to 1.08± 0.58 mg.dl-1. These increases in transaminase activity and bilirubin levels were significantly decreased in rats pretreated with the aqueous extract of cashew apple cake. In mice, the phenobarbital test showed a 29.82 to 38.59% decrease in sleep time in mice pretreated with the aqueous extract of cashew apple cakes.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of cashew apple cakes influencing biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, bilirubin and sleep time, could therefore be used in the prevention of liver diseases, in traditional medicine.