##### Laboratory Evaluation of the Insecticidal Toxins from Entomopathogenic Nematode Symbiotic Bacteria to Control Vegetable Diseases and Pests

Hao Yu-Juan, Chen Chang, Zang Yun-Xi, Wang Huan

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 5, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i5659

Aims: Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) and its symbiotic bacterium are used worldwide as microbial control agents. Toxins from EPN symbiotic bacteria were isolated and provided basis for using this potential resource as biocontrol agent against vegetable diseases and pests.

Study Design: The toxins were extracted from 28 strains of bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes. The insecticidal activity and antibiotic activity against vegetable diseases and pests were determined through bioassay.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, between May 2020 and September 2021.

Methodology: The toxins were extracted by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation method. The insecticidal activities and antibiotic activities were evaluated using bioassay in the laboratory.

Results: The toxins of the symbiotic bacteria associated with EPN had certain insecticidal activities on the first instar larvae of Plutella xylostella and Laphygma exigua, and strain SY5 showed the most obvious antifungal activities against Trichothecium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum.

Conclusions: The toxins of the EPN symbiotic bacteria SY5 had good insecticidal activity and antibiotic activity. Therefore, it has the potential for use against vegetable diseases and pests as biocontrol agents.

##### Study of the Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Total Aqueous Extract of Clerodendrum splendens (G.Don) Leaves (Lamiaceae)

Diabaté Daouda, Koné Allassane, Kouakou Abel Boris, Kouakou Koffi

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 5, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i5658

Clerodendrum splendens (Lamiaceae) is a plant with therapeutic properties, traditionally used in several countries for the treatment of several diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of the total aqueous extract obtained from the leaves of C. splendens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the therapeutic effects of this plant. It consisted in the realization of the antioxidant activity of ETAC according to the following methods: the DPPH test and the iron reducing power test (FRAP).    For the DPPH test, 50 µl of each of the different concentrations of the extract were incubated with 5 ml of a 0.004% methanolic solution of DPPH. After an incubation period of 30 minutes, the absorbances at 517 nm were recorded. The 50% inhibitory concentration of DPPH activity (IC50) expressed in µg/ml of each extract was calculated and compared with that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) taken as the reference antioxidant. The Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay measures the reducing power of antioxidants in a mixture by their ability to reduce ferric tripyridyl-triazine (Fe3+ -TPTZ) to ferrous (Fe 2+-TPTZ) at acidic pH. 900 µl of the FRAP reagent, previously incubated at 37°C, was mixed with 70 µl of doubly distilled water and 30 µl of the sample (with appropriate dilutions). The increase in absorbance at 593 nm was then monitored for 30 minutes at 37 °C. A range of FeSO4.7H2O, a reducing standard, between 0 and 2000 µM was used to calculate the FRAP values of the extracts and the standard antioxidant (BHT). The results of the study showed that ETAC has a good free radical scavenging activity compared to the activity of BHT, which is a synthetic antioxidant used as a standard. Thirty-two (32) rats weighing between 150 and 200 grams on average were used for the immunomodulatory effect of ETAC. The rats were randomly divided into four (4) batches of eight (8) rats each according to their weight. Each batch consisted of four (4) male and four (4) female animals distributed in different bins according to sex. The control rats were each given 1 ml of distilled water daily by gavage for the 28-day treatment period. The three (3) test batches (batches 1; 2 and 3) received 125 mg/kg bw; 250 mg/kg bw and 500 mg/kg bw of ETAC by gavage daily for 28 days. ETAC significantly increased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts at 125 and 250 mg/kg bw. The increase was greatest at 250 mg/kg bw. Only at 250 mg/kg bw was there a significant increase in neutrophils. Histological sections showed no structural or functional abnormalities in the thymus and spleen.

##### Biochemical Characterization of Mango Kernel (Mangifera indica) Grown in Côte d’Ivoire and Formulation of Butter for Cosmetic Use

Kossonou Yao Kamelé, Adingra Kouassi Martial-Didier, Yao Akpolè Landry, Tano Kablan

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 5, Page 33-44
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i5660

Aims: The peel and the kernel of mangoes of KENT and KEIT varieties, although presenting enormous nutritive and technological potentialities, are considered as waste and, as a result, rejected in nature causing environmental pollution. This study therefore set itself the general objective of contributing to the development of mango by-products (Mangifera indica) by incorporating them into formulations of products for cosmetic use.

Study Design: Almond butter was obtained from the fresh and dried almonds of two varieties of mangoes (KENT and KEIT).

Place and Duration of Study: Fruits of mango (KENT and KEIT) varieties at commercial maturity used in this study came from Banco fruit market (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire). The tests were carried out at the laboratory of food biochemistry of Nangui Abrogoua University, between May and July 2020.

Methodology: The mango kernels (Mangifera indica) were extracted and the biochemical characterization of both fresh kernels and almond powders was carried out on parameters such as lipids, ash, fibers, etc. Then, mango kernel powder of KENT with good potential was used for the formulation of butter. Following the control formulation, different formulations were made by reducing volume of extraction solvent (sunflower oil) and varying the amount of beeswax used at 10% and 35% of the mass of macerate used. Finally, physicochemical properties of butter were determined.

Results: The study showed that mango kernels produced in Côte d’Ivoire, specifically mango kernel powders, were rich in lipids (8-9%), proteins (2-7%), fiber (9-11%), carbohydrates (35-76%), ash (2.99-5.66%), vitamin C (35-104 mg/100g) and many other biomolecules, which made possible the production of butter. The physicochemical properties of butter gave results of acid numbers of 8.24 to 9.03 mg KOH/g oil and saponification of 189.45 to 212.09 mg KOH/g oil. These indices combined with pH (4.6 to 5.2), density (0.3 to 0.91) and color are indicators of the good quality of butter. Finally, the KE 1/3 formulation, with 35% beeswax added, gave the most satisfaction.

Conclusion: These physical and chemical properties obtained would suggest a finished product of quality and good conservation and good scent pleasant and would have various applications in the cosmetic field in particular in the nutrition of the skin and the hair.

##### Polymorphism Evaluation of TLR2 Gene Associated with Endometritis Infection in Buffalo Reared in Egypt

Ahlam A. Abou Mossallam, Noha M. Osman, Othman E. Othman, Eman R. Mahfouz

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 5, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i5661

Background and Aim: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important for the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within TLRs have a potential impact on the alteration of susceptibility or resistance to inflammatory diseases. This work focused on a case-control study for the distribution of SNPs in TLR2 gene to test their role for endometritis occurrence in river buffalo.

Materials and Methods: Egyptian buffaloes from the slaughterhouse were tested, where forty samples divided into apparently healthy uteri (20n) and clinically infected ones (20n) were used to detect the genetic association between TLR2 gene SNPs and endometritis disease.

Results: Nineteen novel polymorphic sites were identified. Three SNPs were found to be statistically significant. AA genotype at 5UTR and CC genotype at the coding region had significant association with susceptibility to endometritis, while GG genotype at 5UTR had significant association with resistance to endometritis. Polyphen 2 analysis revealed three amino acids substitutions in TLR2 protein having potential functional significance. Haplotype reconstruction revealed the statistical significance of haplotype frequencies between cases and controls indicating its association with the occurrence of endometritis.

Conclusions: It is to be concluded that the innate immune activation response may be interfered by the effect of polymorphisms and mutations of TLRs due to the reduction of the protein ability to recognize Pathogen associated Molecular pattern (PAMPs).

##### Monkeypox and Monkey Fever: Basic Understanding for Better Community Participation in Disease Control

Sarika Baburajan Pillai, Selvaraj Jagannathan, Akshay Jeyachandran, Naseera Kannanthodi Pariyapurath, Rahul Gandhi Pachamuthu, Venkatachalam Bharathi, Sumitha Jagadibabu, Shivanandappa Kukkaler Channappa, Ananda Arona Premkumar, Moorthy Kannaiyan, Sivakumar Sakthivel

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 5, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i5657

Currently, Monkeypox is a threatening viral disease terminology around the world that worries the global community after the Coronavirus pandemic. Beyond the woods of central Africa, where cases were first discovered, the geographic distribution of monkeypox cases has extended to other parts of the world including India, where cases have been imported. Under these circumstances, public confusion is noticed between Monkeypox and Monkey fever across southern parts of India. Monkeypox and Monkey fever (Kyasanur Forest Disease) are categorized as potential emerging or re-emerging Zoonotic diseases of humans and are fundamentally having clear-cut differentiation in their causative agent, clinical symptoms, and pathogenesis. Hence, it is important to clarify and eliminate the confusions which would have tremendous and dangerous public health impacts. As defined by the Global Burden of Disease Study, Emerging Infections (EIs) are those that have recently appeared in a population or previously existed but are now gaining in prevalence or geographic spread rapidly. A disease emerges from the interactions between rapidly evolving infectious agents and the environmental changes and changes in human behavior that provide these agents with favorable ecological niches. This review attempts to differentiate between the two emerging infections - Monkeypox and Monkey fever which are affecting a significant group of the population worldwide and provides a comparative picture of both diseases towards developing adequate awareness among the public and expects to complement the community-based future control measures.