Open Access Original Research Article

Exposure-Time Effect of Cement Dust on Liver Organ in Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Samuel Ifedioranma Ogenyi, Amalachukwu Okwukwe Ike, Okwuanaso Chetachi Blessing, God’sman Chidugam Eberechukwu, Achilefu, Ramson Chinemerem, Sharon Ibilate Hanson

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 6, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i6663

Background: The purpose of this research was to compare the effect of duration of cement dust on the liver organ of albino rats. In this study, a glass house animal exposure chamber was fabricated using a plexi-glass and two blowing fans of adjustable revolution.

Methodology: A total of twenty five rats averagely weighing 135g were used and categorized into five groups composed of 5 rats each: A group (without cement exposure); B group (exposed to 200g of cement dust for 1 hour daily for 15days); C group (exposed to 200g of cement dust for 1 hour daily for 30 days); D group (exposed to 200g of cement dust for 1 hour daily for 45 days) and E group (exposed to 200g of cement dust for 1 hour daily for 60 days). The means of exposure was by inhalation. After the exposure periods, the animals were sacrificed, blood collected in plain bottle and analyzed for some liver function.

Results: The ANOVA result showed that there were significant changes (p < 0.05) in the levels of some liver function markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein (TP), Albumin and Conjugated bilirubin (CB), and the alteration patterns were irregular. On the other hand, there were no changes (p>0.05) in the levels of Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and Total bilirubin (TB) among the groups.

Conclusion: This study has therefore shown that exposure to cement may cause some decrease of liver injury in rats regardless of the duration of the exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aims: Local varieties of “Hönüsü” and “Horozkarası” red grapes have been evaluated for the production of red wine and characterized33 for their chemical and sensory characteristics.

Study Design: This research was initiated by the Food microbiology researcher and Applications Unit of Fermentation Laboratory.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Fermentation of the Food Engineering Department in Gaziantep University, October 2019 to May 2021.

Methodology: All wines were produced by a standard procedure of vinification. Three types of red wines were produced from combinations of red grapes. Ten phenolics were quantitatively detected in the red wines during processing. Brix, alcohol, pH and free SO2 contents were also detected.

Results: The results showed that the type of technology affects significantly (p<0.05) the level of phenolic compounds formed during processing. Horozkarası” red grape contributed to the highest amount of phenolic compounds in red wines. Gaziantep wine provides valuable information about the production of red wine from Gaziantep red grapes.

Conclusion: The phenolic compounds of red wines were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of musts. Many of the remarkable features of the phenolic profiles and Brix of grape varieties could help us to characterize Gaziantep wines. The mixture of must from “Hönüsü” and “Horozkarası” red grapes with 7:3 ratio contributes suitable sugar and phenolic compounds for red wine. The results from this study provide valuable information about the red wine produced from the ancient grape varieties of the Southeast region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Smith Roots Extracts

Kamirou Chabi-Sika, Haziz Sina, Bawa Boya, Ibrahima Mama-Sirou, Lucas Kpangon, Hafiz A. Salami, Aude Kelomey, Gautier Roko, Sylvestre A. Assogba, Marcel Y. Adoko, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 6, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i6665

Aims: This work aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius extracts.

Methodology: Thus, phytochemical screening was qualitatively accessed using colorations or precipitations methods. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity, using the diffusion method, was evaluated on eight strains including two reference strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and six clinically isolated S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. 

Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, anthocyanins, mucilages, saponosides, C-heterosides and O-heterosides. Antimicrobial activity showed that the ethanolic extract with the lowest MIC (1.25 mg/ml) inhibited reference strains (S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and clinical isolated S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa strains. The largest inhibition diameter (19± 1.33) was obtained with the ethanolic extract against clinical isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (15.5± 1) against the reference one. The aqueous extract inhibited only reference strains.

Conclusions: The data of this study indicate that the extracts of S. latifolius present antimicrobial properties. This may justify its traditional use in the treatment of microbial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Microbial Load and Multidrug-Resistant Profile of Bacterial Flora from Cattle in Bauchi, Nigeria

M. Peter, M. Y. Iliyasu , M. M. Wali , M. R. Sahal , T. Inusa , S. Ismai’l , R. D. Umar , H. Tahir , Z. M. Kabeer

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 6, Page 63-70
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i6666

Aim: The study aimed to assess the bacterial load of in rectal swabs from cattle by isolating Enterococcus spp and Escherichia coli, and determining the multidrug-resistant pattern of the isolates.

Study Design: The study is a clinical-veterinary laboratory investigation involving the isolation and determination of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile of Enterococcus spp and E. coli isolated from cattle rectal.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Yelwa and Gubi campuses Farm centers of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU), Bauchi, Nigeria, in period extended from  April to June 2021.

Methodology: Fresh rectal swab samples were collected from the randomly selected cattle and labeled. The samples were immediately transported and processed in the Microbiology laboratory at Yelwa Campus, and the bacterial load of each sample was determined using standard techniques. Enterococcus spp and E. coli were isolated using differential culture media followed by an appropriate biochemical identification test. The isolates were subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.

Results: In Yelwa, the highest microbial load is 2.7 x 1012 CFU/g. while the lowest microbial load is 2.0 x 1012 CFU/g.  In the Gubi campus, the highest microbial load is 3.4 x 1012 CFU/g. while the lowest microbial load is 2.7 x 1012 CFU/g. Both in Yelwa and Gubi ,the result showed that most isolates of Enterococcus spp and E. coli are multidrug-resistant. In Yalwa some of the isolates showed 100% resistance against Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Ampicillin, and Streptomycin, while Gentamycin gave the lowest multidrug resistance (57.4%). In Gubi, the highest was to ampicillin with (90.6%) frequency, while the lowest resistance was found in Chloramphenicol (11.3%). In Yelwa, a high percentage resistance (92.6%) was observed in Streptomycin, and Cephalexin has the lowest (20.4%). In Gubi, all the E. coli isolates had 100% resistance against sulfamethoxazole, and the lowest was in Ofloxacin (43.4%).

Conclusion: This study found that cattle in the area are reservoirs of bacteria that are both part of the normal flora and opportunistic pathogens, and harbored resistance phenotypes. It is therefore advocated that the use of these animals’ faeces as manure should be done with caution, particularly after pre-treatments.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Genetics, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Kylie A. Limback, William D. Jacobus, Amber Wiggins-McDaniel, Ramon Newman, Robert A. White

Biotechnology Journal International, Volume 26, Issue 6, Page 1-31
DOI: 10.9734/bji/2022/v26i6662

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder involving progressive muscle deterioration leading to loss of mobility, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory complications leading to an early death by the fourth decade of life. Males are affected more often as DMD results from a mutation in the dystrophin gene residing on the X chromosome. The DMD genetic mutation results in a complete functional lack of dystrophin, which culminates as an inadequate connection between the intracellular actin filaments and the extracellular skeleton of muscle. Boys affected by DMD clinically present with muscle weakness before age five, are often wheelchair-bound by age 12, and rarely survive beyond the third decade of life.

Traditional treatment strategies have focused primarily on quality-of-life improvement and have included the use of glucocorticoids and physical therapy. No cure currently exists, however many novel treatments for DMD are currently being explored. Some of these involve gene therapy, exon skipping, stop codon skipping, CRISPR technology interventions, and the use of a retinal dystrophin isoform. In this comprehensive review, we recapitulate the literature findings to summarize the history, epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and current and future strategies for the treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.